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Table 417. Total public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of the gross domestic product, by level of education and country: Selected years, 1985 through 2006
  All institutions Primary and secondary institutions Higher education institutions
Country 1985 1990 1995 20001 20041 20061 20071 1985 1990 1995 20001 20041 20061 20071 1985 1990 1995 20001 20041 20051 20061
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
OECD average2  4.9 4.9 5.2 5.0 5.0 4.9 3.5 3.5 3.5   3.5   3.5   3.4   1.0 0.9 1.2   1.1   1.1   1.0  
Australia 5.4 4.3 4.5 5.1 4.3 4.3 4.1 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.9   3.5   3.4   3.3   1.7 1.0 1.2 1.2   0.8   0.8   0.8  
Austria 5.6 5.2 5.3 5.8 5.0 5.2 5.2 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.8 3  3.6   3.5   3.5   1.0 1.0 0.9 1.4 3  1.1   1.2   1.2  
Belgium (Flemish) 6.3 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.8 5.8 5.9 4.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 4  4.0   3.9   3.9   1.0 0.8 0.9 1.3 4  1.2   1.2   1.2  
Canada 6.1 5.4 5.8 5.5 4.7 4.8 4.1 3.7 4.0 3.3 5  3.2 5,6 3.3 5,6   2.0 1.5 1.5 2.0 5  1.4 5  1.5 5   
Czech Republic (7) (7) 4.8 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.2 (7) (7) 3.4 3.0 4  2.8   2.7   2.7   (7) (7) 0.7 0.8 4  0.9   0.8   1.0  
                                                         
Denmark 6.2 6.2 6.5 8.4 6.9 6.8 6.7 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.8 3,8 4.2 8  4.4 8  4.3 8  1.2 1.3 1.3 2.5 3,8 1.8 8  1.6 8  1.6 8 
Finland 5.8 6.4 6.6 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.7 4.3 4.2 3.6   3.9   3.8   3.7   1.2 1.7 2.0   1.7   1.7   1.6  
France 5.1 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 3.7 4.1 4.1   3.9   3.8   3.7   0.8 1.0 1.0   1.2   1.1   1.1  
Germany9 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.1 2.8 2.9 3.0   2.8   2.8   2.7   1.0 1.0 1.1   1.0   0.9   0.9  
Greece 3.7 3.8 3.3 4.0 2.8 2.7 3,6 2.1 6  2.5 6    0.8 0.9 3  1.1   1.4    
                                                         
Hungary 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.1 5.1 3.5 3.3 3.1   3.3   3.3   3.2   0.8 0.8 1.0   0.9   0.9   0.9  
Iceland 4.3 4.5 6.0 7.2 7.2 7.2 3.3 3.4 4.7 3  5.2 8  5.2 8  5.1   0.6 0.7 1.1 3  1.1 8  1.1 8  1.0  
Ireland 5.6 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.0 3.3 3.3 3.0 4  3.3   3.3   3.4   0.9 0.9 0.9 1.3 4  1.0   1.0   1.0  
Italy 4.7 5.8 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.6 3.2 4.1 3.2 3.2   3.3   3.2   3.4   0.6 1.0 0.7 0.8   0.7   0.6   0.7  
Japan 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.7 8  2.7 8  2.6 8  2.6 8  0.4 0.4 0.5 8  0.5 8  0.5 8  0.5 8 
                                                         
Korea, Republic of 3.6 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.5 3.0 3.3   3.5   3.4   3.4   0.3 0.7   0.5   0.6   0.6  
Luxembourg 4.3 4.2   3.8 6  3.7 6  3.3 6  0.1        
Mexico 3.2 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.3 4.6 2.2 3.4 3.4   3.6   3.7   3.2   0.7 0.8 0.9   0.9   0.9   0.8  
Netherlands 6.2 5.7 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.8 4.1 3.6 3.0 3.2   3.3   3.3   3.3   1.5 1.6 1.1 1.3   1.0   1.0   1.1  
New Zealand 5.5 5.3 7.0 5.6 5.2 5.0 3.9 3.8 4.9   4.4   4.0   3.8   1.2 1.1 1.7   0.9   0.9   0.9  
                                                         
Norway 5.1 6.2 6.8 6.7 6.2 5.7 5.4 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.9   4.2   3.8   3.7   0.7 1.1 1.5 1.7   1.4   1.3   1.2  
Poland 5.2 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.2 3.3 3.8 3  3.7   3.7   3.7   0.8 0.8 3  1.1   1.2   0.9  
Portugal 5.4 5.7 5.3 5.3 5.1 4.1 4.2 3  3.8   3.8   3.6   1.0 1.0 3  0.9   0.9   0.9  
Slovak Republic (7) (7) 4.6 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.6 (7) (7) 2.7 3,4 2.6 10  2.5 10  2.4 10  (7) (7) 0.7 3,4 0.9 10  0.7 10  0.8 10 
Spain 3.6 4.2 4.8 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.2 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.1   2.8   2.7   2.7   0.4 0.7 0.8 1.0   0.9   0.9   0.9  
                                                         
Sweden 5.3 6.6 7.4 6.5 6.2 6.2 4.4 4.4 4.9 4  4.5   4.2   4.1   1.0 1.6 2.0 4  1.6   1.5   1.4  
Switzerland 4.9 5.0 5.5 5.4 5.9 5.6 5.4 4.0 3.7 4.1 3.9   3.9   3.9   3.7   0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2   1.6   1.4   1.4  
Turkey 3.2 2.2 3.5 3.8 2.7 2.3 1.4 2.4 3  2.9     1.9   0.9 0.8 1.1 3  0.9     0.8  
United Kingdom 4.9 4.3 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.2 3.1 3.5 3.8 3.4   3.8   3.8   3.9   1.0 0.7 0.7 1.0   0.8   0.9   0.9  
United States 4.7 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.1 4.8 5.0 3.2 3.8 3.5 3.5 5  3.7   3.5   3.7   1.3 1.4 1.1 1.1 5  1.0   1.0   1.0  
                                                         
Reporting partner
   countries
                                                         
Brazil 3.9 4.4 4.9   2.9 10  3.3   3.8     0.7 10  0.8   0.8  
Chile 3.5 3.3 3.0   2.8   2.7   2.4     0.3   0.3   0.3  
Estonia (7) (7) 4.9 4.7 4.6 (7) (7)   3.7   3.5   3.4   (7) (7)   0.9   0.9   0.9  
Israel 6.6 6.2 6.2   4.4   4.2   4.1     1.1   1.0   1.0  
Russian Federation (7) (7) 3.4 3.0 3.6 3.8 3.9 (7) (7) 1.9 1.7   2.0   1.9   2.0   (7) (7) 0.7 0.5   0.7   0.8   0.8  
Slovenia (7) (7) 5.4 5.3 5.3 (7) (7)   3.9   3.9   3.8   (7) (7)   1.1   1.0   1.0  
—Not available.
1 Includes public subsidies to households attributable for educational institutions and direct expenditure on educational institutions from international sources, except where noted.
2 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting OECD countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally. The average is omitted for years in which less than 75 percent of the countries reported data.
3 Public subsidies to households not included in public expenditure.
4 Direct expenditure on education institutions from international sources exceeds 1.5 percent of all public expenditure.
5 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in higher education.
6 Preprimary education (for children age 3 and older) is included in primary and secondary education.
7 Country did not exist in its current form in the given year.
8 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
9 Data for 1985 are for the former West Germany.
10 Occupation-specific education corresponding to that offered at the associate's degree level in the United States is included in primary and secondary education.
NOTE: Direct public expenditure on educational services includes both amounts spent directly by governments to hire educational personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions, or households. Figures for 1985 also include transfers and payments to private entities, and thus are not strictly comparable with later figures. Postsecondary non-higher-education is included in primary and secondary education unless otherwise noted. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Online Education Database; Annual National Accounts, Vol. 1, 1997; and Education at a Glance, 2007 through 2009. (This table was prepared August 2009.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education