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Table 405. Average fourth-grade mathematics scores, by content and cognitive domain, index of time spent doing mathematics homework, and country: 2007
Country or other jurisdiction Average score Index of time spent doing mathematics homework (TMH) in a normal school week3
Mathematics overall Content domain1 Cognitive domain2
Number Geometric shapes and measures Data display Knowing Applying Reasoning High TMH Medium TMH Low TMH
Percent of students Average score Percent of students Average score Percent of students Average score
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
International average. (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 21 (0.2) 469 (1.0) 58 (0.2) 479 (0.7) 21 (0.2) 468 (1.5)
Algeria4 378 (5.2) 391 (5.0) 383 (4.5) 361 (5.2) 384 (5.4) 376 (5.2) 387 (4.7) 35 (1.7) 397 (6.6) 54 (1.5) 385 (6.0) 11 (1.0) 373 (9.1)
Armenia4 500 (4.3) 522 (4.0) 483 (4.7) 458 (4.3) 518 (4.8) 493 (4.1) 489 (4.7) 31 (1.5) 510 (5.3) 64 (1.4) 503 (3.7) 5 (0.7) 509 (24.8)
Australia 516 (3.5) 496 (3.7) 536 (3.1) 534 (3.1) 509 (4.2) 523 (3.5) 516 (3.4) 7 (0.7) 508 (10.6) 42 (1.5) 517 (3.9) 51 (1.8) 525 (4.4)
Austria 505 (2.0) 502 (2.2) 509 (2.4) 508 (2.6) 505 (2.0) 507 (1.8) 506 (2.1) 16 (0.8) 493 (3.9) 76 (1.0) 511 (2.1) 8 (0.8) 501 (5.0)
Chinese Taipei 576 (1.7) 581 (1.9) 556 (2.2) 567 (2.0) 584 (1.7) 569 (1.7) 566 (1.9) 17 (0.9) 568 (4.0) 63 (1.4) 584 (1.7) 20 (1.3) 569 (3.8)
                                                   
Colombia4 355 (5.0) 360 (4.3) 361 (4.8) 363 (5.9) 360 (5.2) 357 (5.1) 372 (4.9) 29 (1.5) 384 (5.5) 58 (1.4) 369 (4.8) 13 (1.4) 354 (6.9)
Czech Republic 486 (2.8) 482 (2.8) 494 (2.8) 493 (3.3) 473 (2.4) 496 (2.7) 493 (3.4) 8 (0.6) 473 (4.7) 65 (2.0) 489 (2.9) 28 (1.9) 491 (4.6)
Denmark5 523 (2.4) 509 (2.9) 544 (2.6) 529 (3.4) 513 (2.7) 528 (2.5) 524 (2.1) 23 (1.2) 514 (3.3) 52 (1.2) 524 (2.7) 25 (1.4) 538 (3.8)
El Salvador4 330 (4.1) 317 (3.9) 333 (4.3) 367 (3.5) 312 (4.1) 339 (3.7) 356 (4.0) 24 (1.2) 345 (6.3) 62 (1.2) 340 (4.6) 14 (1.1) 346 (6.5)
England 541 (2.9) 531 (3.2) 548 (2.7) 547 (2.5) 544 (3.6) 540 (3.1) 537 (3.1) 3 (0.4) 525 (11.2) 31 (1.6) 547 (5.0) 66 (1.6) 544 (2.9)
                                                   
Georgia4,6 438 (4.2) 464 (3.8) 415 (4.8) 414 (4.6) 450 (4.0) 433 (4.5) 437 (4.2) 27 (1.5) 451 (5.6) 71 (1.5) 449 (4.4) 2 (0.4) (†)
Germany4 525 (2.3) 521 (2.2) 528 (2.0) 534 (3.1) 514 (2.0) 531 (2.2) 528 (2.5) 19 (0.8) 517 (3.4) 76 (0.9) 534 (2.4) 5 (0.6) 496 (10.0)
Hong Kong SAR7 607 (3.6) 606 (3.8) 599 (3.1) 585 (2.7) 617 (3.5) 599 (3.4) 589 (3.5) 18 (1.1) 599 (6.2) 78 (1.1) 613 (3.5) 4 (0.5) 562 (6.2)
Hungary 510 (3.5) 510 (3.7) 510 (3.3) 504 (3.5) 511 (3.4) 507 (3.5) 509 (3.8) 21 (1.0) 517 (4.3) 75 (1.1) 518 (3.5) 4 (0.7) 493 (16.6)
Iran, Islamic Republic of 402 (4.1) 398 (3.6) 429 (3.3) 400 (4.0) 410 (3.6) 405 (3.7) 410 (3.8) 34 (1.7) 424 (5.8) 51 (1.6) 401 (4.5) 15 (1.4) 386 (6.9)
                                                   
Italy 507 (3.1) 505 (3.2) 509 (3.0) 506 (3.4) 514 (3.2) 501 (2.9) 509 (3.1) 18 (1.3) 498 (4.7) 62 (1.6) 508 (3.8) 19 (1.8) 515 (3.9)
Japan 568 (2.1) 561 (2.2) 566 (2.2) 578 (2.8) 565 (2.1) 566 (2.0) 563 (2.1) 11 (0.9) 542 (4.6) 64 (1.9) 573 (2.4) 25 (1.9) 572 (3.5)
Kazakhstan6 549 (7.1) 556 (6.6) 542 (7.4) 522 (5.8) 559 (7.3) 547 (7.2) 539 (6.1) 42 (2.0) 549 (9.3) 56 (1.9) 552 (7.3) 2 (0.3) (†)
Kuwait4,8 316 (3.6) 321 (3.5) 316 (3.6) 318 (4.7) 326 (4.6) 305 (4.1) (†) 17 (0.9) 313 (6.4) 63 (1.7) 336 (3.8) 20 (1.4) 350 (6.9)
Latvia6 537 (2.3) 536 (2.1) 532 (2.6) 536 (3.0) 530 (2.2) 540 (2.5) 537 (2.5) 34 (1.3) 534 (3.2) 65 (1.3) 545 (2.6) 1 (0.2) (†)
                                                   
Lithuania6 530 (2.4) 533 (2.3) 518 (2.4) 530 (2.9) 520 (2.8) 539 (2.4) 526 (2.5) 29 (1.3) 526 (3.5) 68 (1.3) 537 (2.5) 3 (0.5) 530 (10.7)
Morocco4 341 (4.7) 353 (4.7) 365 (4.3) 316 (6.1) 354 (4.8) 346 (4.7) (†) 24 (1.6) 360 (9.1) 61 (1.9) 352 (5.3) 16 (1.7) 350 (12.7)
Netherlands9 535 (2.1) 535 (2.2) 522 (2.3) 543 (2.3) 525 (2.2) 540 (2.0) 534 (2.4) 1 (0.2) (†) 10 (0.9) 507 (4.7) 89 (0.9) 541 (2.3)
New Zealand 492 (2.3) 478 (2.7) 502 (2.3) 513 (2.6) 482 (2.5) 495 (2.3) 503 (2.8) 8 (0.5) 469 (5.3) 38 (1.1) 487 (3.7) 54 (1.4) 509 (2.4)
Norway 473 (2.5) 461 (2.8) 490 (3.0) 487 (2.6) 461 (2.9) 479 (2.8) 489 (2.7) 12 (1.0) 465 (7.4) 53 (1.8) 478 (2.9) 35 (2.1) 487 (3.4)
                                                   
Qatar10 296 (1.0) 292 (1.2) 296 (1.4) 326 (1.6) 293 (1.3) 296 (1.2) (†) 20 (0.6) 301 (3.1) 61 (0.7) 315 (2.3) 19 (0.5) 311 (3.3)
Russian Federation 544 (4.9) 546 (4.4) 538 (5.1) 530 (4.9) 538 (4.5) 547 (4.8) 540 (4.8) 37 (1.4) 541 (5.7) 61 (1.3) 550 (5.0) 1 (0.3) (†)
Scotland5 494 (2.2) 481 (2.6) 503 (2.6) 516 (2.2) 489 (2.6) 500 (2.4) 497 (2.2) 3 (0.3) 453 (10.7) 30 (1.7) 484 (3.1) 67 (1.8) 505 (2.9)
Singapore 599 (3.7) 611 (4.3) 570 (3.7) 583 (3.2) 620 (4.0) 590 (3.7) 578 (3.8) 34 (0.9) 607 (4.4) 52 (0.9) 603 (3.7) 15 (0.8) 581 (5.6)
Slovak Republic 496 (4.5) 495 (3.9) 499 (4.3) 492 (4.2) 492 (3.9) 498 (4.0) 499 (4.0) 10 (0.6) 481 (4.0) 79 (1.2) 508 (3.2) 11 (1.0) 496 (9.1)
                                                   
Slovenia 502 (1.8) 485 (1.9) 522 (1.8) 518 (2.5) 497 (1.8) 504 (1.9) 505 (2.1) 19 (0.9) 487 (3.2) 79 (1.0) 510 (2.1) 3 (0.3) 479 (9.0)
Sweden 503 (2.5) 490 (2.5) 508 (2.3) 529 (2.7) 482 (2.5) 508 (2.2) 519 (2.5) 5 (0.6) 472 (6.4) 34 (1.2) 493 (2.9) 60 (1.4) 513 (3.0)
Tunisia4 327 (4.5) 352 (4.5) 334 (4.5) 307 (4.8) 343 (4.9) 329 (4.8) (†) 33 (1.7) 362 (5.5) 53 (1.4) 352 (4.8) 14 (1.2) 342 (7.7)
Ukraine 469 (2.9) 480 (2.9) 457 (2.8) 462 (3.2) 472 (3.0) 466 (3.1) 474 (3.2) 37 (1.3) 475 (3.3) 61 (1.3) 475 (3.4) 1 (0.2) (†)
United States5,11 529 (2.4) 524 (2.7) 522 (2.5) 543 (2.4) 541 (2.6) 524 (2.6) 523 (2.2) 12 (0.5) 522 (3.6) 65 (1.2) 535 (2.8) 23 (1.3) 528 (3.2)
Yemen10 224 (6.0) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 30 (2.4) 243 (9.7) 64 (2.5) 245 (6.6) 6 (1.0) 218 (11.8)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met.
1 Number includes whole numbers, fractions and decimals, number sentences, and patterns and relationships. Geometric shapes and measures includes lines and angles, two- and three-dimensional shapes, and location and movement. Data display includes reading and interpreting, and organizing and representing.
2 Knowing addresses the facts, procedures, and concepts that students need to know to function mathematically. Applying focuses on students' ability to apply knowledge and conceptual understanding in order to solve problems or answer questions. Reasoning goes beyond the cognitive processes involved in solving routine problems to include unfamiliar situations, complex contexts, and multistep problems.
3 High TMH indicates more than 30 minutes of mathematics homework assigned 3-4 times per week. Medium TMH includes all possible combinations of responses not included in the high or low categories. Low TMH indicates no more than 30 minutes of mathematics homework assigned no more than 2 times per week. TMH index data are provided by students.
4 For the TMH index, data are available for for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of the students.
5 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included.
6 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population defined by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).
Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context
7 Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China.
8 Kuwait tested the same cohort of students as other countries, but later in 2007, at the beginning of the next school year.
9 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included.
10 For the TMH index, data are available for at least 50 percent but less than 70 percent of the students.
11 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of National Target Population.
NOTE: TIMSS scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale average fixed at 500 and the standard deviation fixed at 100. Countries were required to sample students in the grade that corresponded to the end of 4 years of formal schooling, providing that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 9.5 years. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007, TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report, by Ina V.S. Mullis et al. (This table was prepared May 2009.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education