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Table 373. Federal support and estimated federal tax expenditures for education, by category: Selected fiscal years, 1965 through 2009
[In millions of dollars]
Fiscal year Total
on-budget
support,
off-budget
support,
and
nonfederal
funds
generated
by federal
legislation
On-budget support1 Off-budget support and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation Estimated
federal tax
expendi-
tures for
education2
Total Elemen-
tary and
secondary
Post-
secondary
Other
educa-
tion3
Research at
educational
institutions
Total Off-
budget
support
Nonfederal funds
Direct
Loan
Program4
Federal
Family
Education
Loan
Program5
Perkins
Loans6
Income
Contingent
Loans7
Leveraging
Educational
Assistance
Partner-
ships8
Supplemental
Educational
Opportunity
Grants9
Work-
Study
Aid10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
  Current dollars
1965 $5,354.7 $5,331.0 $1,942.6 $1,197.5 $374.7 $1,816.3   $23.7 $16.1 $7.6
1970 13,359.1 12,526.5 5,830.4 3,447.7 964.7 2,283.6   832.6 $770.0 21.0 41.6
1975 24,691.5 23,288.1 10,617.2 7,644.0 1,608.5 3,418.4   1,403.4 1,233.0 35.7 $20.0 114.7 $8,605.0
1980 39,349.5 34,493.5 16,027.7 11,115.9 1,548.7 5,801.2   4,856.0 4,598.0 31.8 76.8 149.4 13,320.0
                                 
1985 47,753.4 39,027.9 16,901.3 11,174.4 2,107.6 8,844.6   8,725.5 8,467.0 21.4 76.0 161.1 19,105.0
1986 48,357.3 39,962.9 17,049.9 11,283.6 2,620.0 9,009.4   8,394.4 8,142.0 20.2 72.7 159.5 20,425.0
1987 50,724.6 41,194.7 17,535.7 10,300.0 2,820.4 10,538.6   9,529.8 9,272.0 20.9 $0.6 76.0 160.4 20,830.0
1988 54,078.7 43,454.4 18,564.9 10,657.5 2,981.6 11,250.5   10,624.3 10,380.0 20.6 0.5 72.8 150.4 17,025.0
1989 59,537.4 48,269.6 19,809.5 13,269.9 3,180.3 12,009.8   11,267.8 10,938.0 20.4 0.5 71.9 $22.0 215.0 17,755.0
                                 
1990 62,811.5 51,624.3 21,984.4 13,650.9 3,383.0 12,606.0   11,187.2 10,826.0 15.0 0.5 59.2 48.8 237.7 19,040.0
1991 70,375.6 57,599.5 25,418.0 14,707.4 3,698.6 13,775.4   12,776.1 12,372.0 17.3 0.5 63.5 87.7 235.0 18,995.0
1992 74,481.1 60,483.1 27,926.9 14,387.4 3,992.0 14,176.9   13,998.0 13,568.0 17.3 0.5 72.0 97.2 242.9 19,950.0
1993 84,741.5 67,740.6 30,834.3 17,844.0 4,107.2 14,955.1   17,000.8 16,524.0 29.3 72.4 184.6 190.5 21,010.0
1994 92,781.5 68,254.2 32,304.4 16,177.1 4,483.7 15,289.1   24,527.3 $813.0 23,214.0 52.7 72.4 184.6 190.5 22,630.0
                                 
1995 95,810.8 71,639.5 33,623.8 17,618.1 4,719.7 15,677.9   24,171.2 5,161.0 18,519.0 52.7 63.4 184.6 190.5 24,600.0
1996 96,833.0 71,327.4 34,391.5 15,775.5 4,828.0 16,332.3   25,505.6 8,357.0 16,711.0 31.1 31.4 184.6 190.5 26,340.0
1997 103,259.8 73,731.8 35,478.9 15,959.4 5,021.2 17,272.4   29,528.0 9,838.0 19,163.0 52.7 50.0 184.6 239.7 28,125.0
1998 107,810.5 76,909.2 37,486.2 15,799.6 5,148.5 18,475.0   30,901.3 10,400.1 20,002.5 45.0 25.0 194.3 234.4 29,540.0
1999 113,417.2 82,863.6 39,937.9 17,651.2 5,318.0 19,956.5   30,553.6 9,953.0 20,107.0 33.3 25.0 195.9 239.4 37,360.0
                                 
2000 119,541.6 85,944.2 43,790.8 15,008.7 5,484.6 21,660.1   33,597.4 10,347.0 22,711.0 33.3 50.0 199.7 256.4 39,475.0
2001 130,668.5 94,846.5 48,530.1 14,938.3 5,880.0 25,498.1   35,822.0 10,635.0 24,694.0 25.0 80.0 184.0 204.0 41,460.0
2002 150,034.5 109,211.5 52,754.1 22,964.2 6,297.7 27,195.5   40,823.0 11,689.0 28,606.0 25.0 104.0 192.0 207.0
2003 170,671.5 124,374.5 59,274.2 29,499.7 6,532.5 29,068.1   46,297.0 11,969.0 33,791.0 33.0 103.0 202.0 199.0
2004 185,176.7 132,420.7 62,653.2 32,433.0 6,576.8 30,757.7   52,756.0 12,840.0 39,266.0 33.0 102.0 244.0 271.0
                                 
2005 203,036.0 146,207.0 68,957.7 38,587.3 6,908.5 31,753.5   56,829.0 12,930.0 43,284.0 0.0 101.0 246.0 268.0
2006 226,978.7 166,495.7 70,948.2 57,757.7 7,074.5 30,715.2   60,483.0 12,677.0 47,307.0 0.0 100.0 205.0 194.0
2007 211,915.7 147,077.7 70,604.2 37,465.3 7,214.9 31,793.3 11  64,838.0 13,022.0 51,320.0 0.0 100.0 205.0 191.0
2008 223,273.5 147,275.5 71,626.7 36,460.9 7,882.2 31,305.7 11  75,998.0 18,213.0 57,296.0 0.0 98.0 201.0 190.0
200911 82,896.1 37,221.1 8,581.7   86,352.0 21,836.0 63,980.0 0.0 98.0 201.0 237.0
  Constant fiscal year 2009 dollars12 
1965 $35,508.4 $35,351.2 $12,881.7 $7,941.0 $2,484.4 $12,044.1   $157.2 $106.8 $50.4
1970 72,279.2 67,774.6 31,545.6 18,653.7 5,219.6 12,355.6   4,504.6 $4,166.1 113.5 225.1
1975 93,286.2 87,984.2 40,112.5 28,879.7 6,076.9 12,915.0   5,302.0 4,658.4 134.8 $75.6 433.3 $32,510.3
1980 100,036.4 87,691.3 40,746.5 28,259.4 3,937.3 14,748.1   12,345.1 11,689.3 80.8 195.2 379.8 33,862.8
                                 
1985 90,034.9 73,583.7 31,866.0 21,068.3 3,973.7 16,675.7   16,451.2 15,963.8 40.3 143.3 303.7 36,020.9
1986 88,995.0 73,546.2 31,378.1 20,765.9 4,821.8 16,580.5   15,448.7 14,984.2 37.2 133.8 293.5 37,589.4
1987 90,790.1 73,733.0 31,386.5 18,435.6 5,048.1 18,862.7   17,057.1 16,595.6 37.4 $1.0 136.0 287.1 37,282.9
1988 93,952.5 75,494.6 32,253.3 18,515.6 5,180.0 19,545.8   18,457.9 18,033.5 35.9 0.8 126.5 261.3 29,578.0
1989 99,749.2 80,871.0 33,188.9 22,232.4 5,328.3 20,121.3   18,878.2 18,325.6 34.2 0.9 120.5 $36.9 360.2 29,746.8
                                 
1990 101,883.5 83,737.3 35,659.7 22,142.5 5,487.4 20,447.6   18,146.2 17,560.3 24.4 0.8 96.0 79.2 385.6 30,883.8
1991 109,379.0 89,522.2 39,505.2 22,858.5 5,748.5 21,410.0   19,856.8 19,228.8 27.0 0.8 98.7 136.3 365.2 29,522.4
1992 111,923.1 90,888.1 41,965.8 21,620.0 5,998.7 21,303.6   21,034.9 20,388.7 26.0 0.8 108.2 146.1 365.0 29,978.9
1993 124,174.2 99,262.3 45,182.4 26,147.4 6,018.4 21,914.1   24,911.8 24,213.1 42.9 106.1 270.5 279.2 30,786.6
1994 133,252.2 98,026.3 46,395.3 23,233.4 6,439.5 21,958.1   35,225.9 $1,167.6 33,339.8 75.6 104.0 265.2 273.7 32,501.1
                                 
1995 134,313.6 100,428.9 47,136.0 24,698.2 6,616.3 21,978.3   33,884.8 7,235.0 25,961.1 73.8 88.9 258.8 267.1 34,485.9
1996 132,719.7 97,761.6 47,137.2 21,622.0 6,617.3 22,385.1   34,958.1 11,454.1 22,904.2 42.6 43.0 253.0 261.1 36,101.7
1997 138,849.1 99,144.1 47,707.0 21,460.0 6,751.7 23,225.4   39,705.0 13,228.7 25,767.7 70.9 67.2 248.2 322.3 37,818.5
1998 143,534.1 102,393.5 49,907.4 21,034.8 6,854.5 24,596.8   41,140.6 13,846.2 26,630.4 59.9 33.3 258.7 312.1 39,328.2
1999 148,752.4 108,679.8 52,380.6 23,150.4 6,974.9 26,173.9   40,072.6 13,053.9 26,371.4 43.7 32.8 256.9 314.0 48,999.5
                                 
2000 152,833.9 109,879.7 55,986.5 19,188.6 7,012.0 27,692.5   42,954.3 13,228.6 29,036.0 42.6 63.9 255.3 327.8 50,468.8
2001 163,239.8 118,488.6 60,627.0 18,661.9 7,345.7 31,854.0   44,751.2 13,286.0 30,849.4 31.2 99.9 229.9 254.9 51,794.6
2002 183,999.1 133,934.7 64,696.5 28,162.8 7,723.4 33,352.0   50,064.5 14,335.1 35,081.8 30.7 127.5 235.5 253.9
2003 203,871.3 148,568.4 70,804.5 35,238.1 7,803.2 34,722.5   55,302.9 14,297.3 40,364.2 39.4 123.0 241.3 237.7
2004 214,952.3 153,713.3 72,727.6 37,648.0 7,634.3 35,703.4   61,238.9 14,904.6 45,579.8 38.3 118.4 283.2 314.6
                                 
2005 227,364.0 163,725.7 77,220.3 43,210.9 7,736.3 35,558.2   63,638.3 14,479.3 48,470.3 0.0 113.1 275.5 300.1
2006 245,738.2 180,256.3 76,812.0 62,531.3 7,659.2 33,253.8   65,481.8 13,724.7 51,216.9 0.0 108.3 221.9 210.0
2007 224,264.7 155,648.4 74,718.6 39,648.5 7,635.3 33,646.0 11  68,616.3 13,780.8 54,310.6 0.0 105.8 216.9 202.1
2008 226,839.8 149,627.9 72,770.8 37,043.2 8,008.1 31,805.8 11  77,211.9 18,503.9 58,211.2 0.0 99.6 204.2 193.0
200911 82,896.1 37,221.1 8,581.7   86,352.0 21,836.0 63,980.0 0.0 98.0 201.0 237.0
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
1 On-budget support includes federal funds for education programs tied to appropriations.
2 Losses of tax revenue attributable to provisions of the federal income tax laws that allow a special exclusion, exemption, or deduction from gross income or provide a special credit, preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of tax liability affecting individual or corporate income tax liabilities.
3 Other education includes libraries, museums, cultural activities, and miscellaneous research.
4 The William D. Ford Direct Program (commonly referred to as the Direct Loan Program) provides students with the same benefits they are currently eligible to receive under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program, but provides loans to students through federal capital rather than through private lenders.
5 Formerly the Guaranteed Student Loan program. Includes new student loans guaranteed by the federal government and disbursed to borrowers.
6 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (since 1993 one-third of federal capital contributions). Excludes repayments of outstanding loans.
7 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (one-ninth of the federal contribution). This was a demonstration project that involved only 10 institutions and had unsubsidized interest rates. Program repealed in fiscal year 1992.
8 Formerly the State Student Incentive Grant program. Starting in fiscal year 2000, amounts under $30.0 million have required dollar-for-dollar state matching contributions, while amounts over $30.0 million have required two-to-one state matching contributions.
9 Institutions award grants to undergraduate students, and the federal share of such grants may not exceed 75 percent of the total grant.
10 Employer contributions to student earnings are generally one-third of federal allocation.
11 Estimated.
12 Data adjusted by the federal funds composite deflator reported in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Historical Tables, Fiscal Year 2010.
NOTE: To the extent possible, federal education funds data represent outlays rather than obligations. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Changes in postsecondary expenditures between 2005 and 2009 resulted primarily from changes in accounting
procedures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, fiscal years 1967 through 2010. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1967 through 2008. (This table was prepared October 2009.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education