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Table 132. Average mathematics scale score, by age and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1973 through 2008
Selected student and school characteristic 1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004 2008
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
9-year-olds
   All students
219 (0.8) 219 (0.8) 219 (1.1) 222 (1.0) 230 (0.8) 230 (0.8) 231 (0.8) 231 (0.8) 232 (0.8) 239 (0.9) 243 (0.8)
Sex                                            
Male 218 (0.7) 217 (0.7) 217 (1.2) 222 (1.1) 229 (0.9) 231 (1.0) 232 (1.0) 233 (1.2) 233 (1.0) 239 (1.0) 242 (0.9)
Female 220 (1.1) 220 (1.0) 221 (1.2) 222 (1.2) 230 (1.1) 228 (1.0) 230 (0.9) 229 (0.7) 231 (0.9) 240 (1.0) 243 (1.0)
                                           
Race/ethnicity                                            
White 225 (1.0) 224 (0.9) 224 (1.1) 227 (1.1) 235 (0.8) 235 (0.8) 237 (1.0) 237 (1.0) 239 (0.9) 245 (0.8) 250 (0.8)
Black 190 (1.8) 192 (1.1) 195 (1.6) 202 (1.6) 208 (2.2) 208 (2.0) 212 (1.6) 212 (1.4) 211 (1.6) 221 (2.1) 224 (1.9)
Hispanic 202 (2.4) 203 (2.2) 204 (1.3) 205 (2.1) 214 (2.1) 212 (2.3) 210 (2.3) 215 (1.7) 213 (1.9) 229 (2.0) 234 (1.2)
                                           
Region                                            
Northeast 227 (1.9) 227 (1.9) 226 (1.8) 226 (2.7) 236 (2.1) 235 (1.9) 238 (2.2) 236 (2.0) 242 (1.7) 243 (2.5) 248 (1.5)
Southeast 208 (1.3) 209 (1.2) 210 (2.5) 218 (2.5) 224 (2.4) 221 (1.7) 229 (1.4) 227 (2.0) 226 (2.6) 236 (1.7) 237 (1.9)
Central 224 (1.5) 224 (1.5) 221 (2.7) 226 (2.3) 231 (1.3) 234 (1.6) 233 (1.8) 233 (2.3) 233 (1.4) 240 (1.9) 244 (1.2)
West 216 (2.2) 213 (1.3) 219 (1.8) 217 (2.4) 228 (1.8) 229 (2.3) 226 (1.6) 229 (1.3) 228 (1.7) 239 (1.7) 243 (1.1)
                                           
13-year-olds
   All students
266 (1.1) 264 (1.1) 269 (1.1) 269 (1.2) 270 (0.9) 273 (0.9) 274 (1.0) 274 (0.8) 276 (0.8) 279 (1.0) 281 (0.9)
Sex                                            
Male 265 (1.3) 264 (1.3) 269 (1.4) 270 (1.1) 271 (1.2) 274 (1.1) 276 (1.3) 276 (0.9) 277 (0.9) 279 (1.0) 284 (1.0)
Female 267 (1.1) 265 (1.1) 268 (1.1) 268 (1.5) 270 (0.9) 272 (1.0) 273 (1.0) 272 (1.0) 274 (1.1) 278 (1.2) 279 (1.0)
                                           
Race/ethnicity                                            
White 274 (0.9) 272 (0.8) 274 (1.0) 274 (1.3) 276 (1.1) 279 (0.9) 281 (0.9) 281 (0.9) 283 (0.8) 287 (0.9) 290 (1.2)
Black 228 (1.9) 230 (1.9) 240 (1.6) 249 (2.3) 249 (2.3) 250 (1.9) 252 (3.5) 252 (1.3) 251 (2.6) 257 (1.8) 262 (1.2)
Hispanic 239 (2.2) 238 (2.0) 252 (1.7) 254 (2.9) 255 (1.8) 259 (1.8) 256 (1.9) 256 (1.6) 259 (1.7) 264 (1.5) 268 (1.2)
                                           
Parents' highest level
   of education
                                           
Did not finish high school (†) 245 (1.2) 251 (1.4) 252 (2.3) 253 (1.8) 256 (1.0) 255 (2.1) 254 (2.4) 256 (2.8) 263 (1.9) 268 (1.3)
Graduated high school (†) 263 (1.0) 263 (0.8) 263 (1.2) 263 (1.2) 263 (1.2) 266 (1.1) 267 (1.1) 264 (1.1) 270 (1.3) 272 (1.1)
Some education after
     high school
(†) 273 (1.2) 275 (0.9) 274 (0.8) 277 (1.0) 278 (1.0) 277 (1.6) 277 (1.4) 279 (0.9) 282 (1.4) 285 (1.1)
Graduated college (†) 284 (1.2) 282 (1.5) 280 (1.4) 280 (1.0) 283 (1.0) 285 (1.2) 283 (1.2) 286 (1.0) 289 (1.1) 291 (1.0)
                                           
Region                                            
Northeast 275 (2.4) 273 (2.4) 277 (2.0) 277 (2.2) 275 (2.3) 274 (2.2) 284 (1.5) 275 (2.1) 279 (2.7) 282 (2.5) 285 (1.6)
Southeast 255 (3.2) 253 (3.3) 258 (2.2) 263 (1.4) 266 (1.9) 271 (2.5) 269 (2.0) 270 (1.8) 270 (2.3) 276 (2.4) 277 (1.8)
Central 271 (1.8) 269 (1.8) 273 (2.1) 266 (4.5) 272 (2.4) 275 (1.5) 275 (3.4) 280 (1.3) 278 (1.8) 281 (1.7) 284 (2.2)
West 262 (1.9) 260 (1.9) 266 (2.4) 270 (2.1) 269 (1.6) 272 (1.4) 272 (1.7) 273 (1.9) 276 (1.4) 278 (1.5) 281 (1.3)
                                           
17-year-olds
   All students
304 (1.1) 300 (1.0) 298 (0.9) 302 (0.9) 305 (0.9) 307 (0.9) 306 (1.0) 307 (1.2) 308 (1.0) 305 (0.7) 306 (0.6)
Sex                                            
Male 309 (1.2) 304 (1.0) 301 (1.0) 305 (1.2) 306 (1.1) 309 (1.1) 309 (1.4) 310 (1.3) 310 (1.4) 307 (0.9) 309 (0.7)
Female 301 (1.1) 297 (1.0) 296 (1.0) 299 (1.0) 303 (1.1) 305 (1.1) 304 (1.1) 305 (1.4) 307 (1.0) 304 (0.8) 303 (0.8)
                                           
Race/ethnicity                                            
White 310 (1.1) 306 (0.9) 304 (0.9) 308 (1.0) 309 (1.0) 312 (0.8) 312 (1.1) 313 (1.4) 315 (1.1) 311 (0.7) 314 (0.7)
Black 270 (1.3) 268 (1.3) 272 (1.2) 279 (2.1) 289 (2.8) 286 (2.2) 286 (1.8) 286 (1.7) 283 (1.5) 284 (1.4) 287 (1.2)
Hispanic 277 (2.2) 276 (2.3) 277 (1.8) 283 (2.9) 284 (2.9) 292 (2.6) 291 (3.7) 292 (2.1) 293 (2.5) 292 (1.2) 293 (1.1)
                                           
Parents' highest level
   of education
                                           
Did not finish high school (†) 280 (1.2) 279 (1.0) 279 (2.3) 285 (2.2) 285 (2.3) 284 (2.4) 281 (2.4) 289 (1.8) 287 (1.2) 292 (1.3)
Graduated high school (†) 294 (0.8) 293 (0.8) 293 (1.0) 294 (0.9) 298 (1.7) 295 (1.1) 297 (2.4) 299 (1.6) 294 (0.9) 296 (1.2)
Some education after
     high school
(†) 305 (0.9) 304 (0.9) 305 (1.2) 308 (1.0) 308 (1.1) 305 (1.3) 307 (1.5) 308 (1.6) 305 (0.9) 306 (0.8)
Graduated college (†) 317 (1.0) 312 (1.0) 314 (1.4) 316 (1.3) 316 (1.0) 318 (1.4) 317 (1.3) 317 (1.2) 315 (0.9) 316 (0.7)
                                           
Region                                            
Northeast 312 (1.8) 307 (1.8) 304 (2.0) 307 (1.9) 304 (2.1) 311 (2.0) 313 (2.9) 309 (3.0) 313 (2.4) 306 (1.6) 308 (1.4)
Southeast 296 (1.8) 292 (1.7) 292 (2.1) 297 (1.4) 301 (2.3) 301 (1.9) 301 (1.6) 303 (2.1) 300 (1.4) 300 (1.2) 303 (1.5)
Central 306 (1.8) 305 (1.9) 302 (1.4) 304 (1.9) 311 (2.1) 312 (2.0) 307 (2.2) 314 (2.0) 310 (2.0) 310 (1.3) 309 (1.6)
West 303 (2.0) 295 (1.8) 294 (1.9) 299 (2.7) 302 (1.5) 303 (2.3) 305 (2.4) 304 (2.3) 310 (2.0) 305 (1.6) 305 (1.1)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
NOTE: Scale ranges from 0 to 500. Students scoring 150 (or higher) know some basic addition and subtraction facts. Students scoring 200 have considerable understanding of two-digit numbers and know some basic multiplication and division facts. Students scoring 250 have an initial understanding of the four basic operations and are developing an ability to analyze simple logical relations. Students scoring 300 can perform reasoning and problem solving involving fractions, decimals, percents, elementary geometry, and simple algebra. Students scoring 350 can perform reasoning and problem solving involving geometry, algebra, and beginning statistics and probability. Includes public and private schools. Excludes persons not enrolled in school and students who were unable to be tested due to limited proficiency in English or due to a disability. Beginning in 2004, data are for a revised assessment format that provides accommodations for students with disabilities and English language learners. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Totals include other racial/ethnic groups not shown separately. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress; and 2008 NAEP Long-Term Trend Mathematics Assessment, retrieved May 4, 2009, from the Long-Term Trend NAEP Data Explorer (http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/). (This table was prepared May 2009.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education