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Table 33. Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: Selected years, 1869–70 through 2006–07
Selected characteristic 1869-70 1879-80 1889-90 1899-1900 1909-10 1919-20 1929-30 1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1979-80 1989-90 1999-2000 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Population, pupils, and instructional staff                                                    
Total population (in thousands)1  38,558   50,156 62,622 75,995 90,490 104,514 121,878 131,028 149,188 177,830   201,385   225,055   246,819   279,040   292,892   295,561   298,363  
5- to 17-year-olds (in thousands)1  11,683   15,066 18,473 21,573 24,011 27,571 31,414 30,151 30,223 43,881   52,386   48,043   44,947   52,811   53,107   53,077   53,158  
5- to 17-year-olds as a percent
     of total population
30.3   30.0 29.5 28.4 26.5 26.4 25.8 23.0 20.3 24.7   26.0   21.3   18.2   18.9   18.1   18.0   17.8  
                                                   
Total enrollment in elementary and secondary
   schools (in thousands)2 
7,562 3  9,867 12,723 15,503 17,814 21,578 25,678 25,434 25,112 36,087   45,550   41,651   40,543   46,857   48,795   49,113   49,316  
Prekindergarten and grades 1-8 (in thousands) 7,481 3  9,757 12,520 14,984 16,899 19,378 21,279 18,833 19,387 27,602   32,513   28,034   29,150   33,486   34,178   34,204   34,235  
Grades 9-12 (in thousands) 80 3  110 203 519 915 2,200 4,399 6,601 5,725 8,485   13,037   13,616   11,393   13,371   14,618   14,909   15,081  
                                                   
Enrollment as a percent of total population 19.6 3  19.7 20.3 20.4 19.7 20.6 21.1 19.4 16.8 20.3   22.6   18.5   16.4   16.8   16.7   16.6   16.5  
Enrollment as a percent of 5- to 17-year-olds 64.7 3  65.5 68.9 71.9 74.2 78.3 81.7 84.4 83.1 82.2   87.0   86.7   90.2   88.7   91.9   92.5   92.8  
Percent of total enrollment in high schools
   (grades 9-12)
1.1 3  1.1 1.6 3.3 5.1 10.2 17.1 26.0 22.8 23.5   28.6   32.7   28.1   28.5   30.0   30.4   30.6  
High school graduates (in thousands)   22 62 111 231 592 1,143 1,063 1,627   2,589   2,748   2,320   2,554   2,799   2,816   2,892  
                                                   
Average daily attendance (in thousands) 4,077   6,144 8,154 10,633 12,827 16,150 21,265 22,042 22,284 32,477   41,934   38,289   37,799   43,807   45,625   45,932   46,128  
Total number of days attended by pupils
   enrolled (in millions)
539   801 1,098 1,535 2,011 2,615 3,673 3,858 3,964 5,782   7,501   6,835 4    7,858   8,205   8,250   8,274  
Percent of enrolled pupils attending daily 59.3   62.3 64.1 68.6 72.1 74.8 82.8 86.7 88.7 90.0   90.4   90.1 4    94.3        
Average length of school term, in days 132.2   130.3 134.7 144.3 157.5 161.9 172.7 175.0 177.9 178.0   178.9   178.5 4    179.4   179.8   179.6   179.4  
Average number of days attended per pupil 78.4   81.1 86.3 99.0 113.0 121.2 143.0 151.7 157.9 160.2   161.7   160.8 4    169.2        
                                                   
Total instructional staff (in thousands)   678 880 912 963 1,457   2,286   2,406   2,986   3,819   4,120   4,151   4,187  
Supervisors (in thousands)   7 7 5                
Principals (in thousands)   14 31 32 43 64   91   106   126   137.199   166   156   154  
Teachers, librarians, and other nonsupervi-
     sory instructional staff (in thousands)5
201   287 364 423 523 657 843 875 920 1,393   2,195   2,300   2,860   3681.858   3,954   3,995   4,033  
Males (in thousands) 78   123 126 127 110 93 140 195 196 404 4  711 4  782 4           
Females (in thousands) 123   164 238 296 413 585 703 681 724 989 4  1,484 4  1,518 4           
Percent male 38.7   42.8 34.5 29.9 21.1 14.1 16.6 22.2 21.3 29.0 4  32.4 4  34.0 4           
Amounts in current dollars
Total revenues and expenditures                                                    
Total revenue receipts (in millions)   $143 $220 $433 $970 $2,089 $2,261 $5,437 $14,747   $40,267   $96,881   $208,548   $372,944   $487,754   $520,622   $555,338  
Federal government   2 7 40 156 652   3,220   9,504   12,701   27,098   44,810   47,554   47,041  
State governments   160 354 684 2,166 5,768   16,063   45,349   98,239   184,613   228,554   242,151   264,227  
Local sources, including intermediate   808 1,728 1,536 3,116 8,327   20,985   42,029   97,608   161,233   214,390   230,917   244,069  
Percentage distribution of revenue receipts                                                    
Federal government   0.3 0.4 1.8 2.9 4.4   8.0   9.8   6.1   7.3   9.2   9.1   8.5  
State governments   16.5 16.9 30.3 39.8 39.1   39.9   46.8   47.1   49.5   46.9   46.5   47.6  
Local sources, including intermediate   83.2 82.7 68.0 57.3 56.5   52.1   43.4   46.8   43.2   44.0   44.4   43.9  
Total expenditures for public schools
   (in millions)
$63   $78 $141 $215 $426 $1,036 $2,317 $2,344 $5,838 $15,613   $40,683   $95,962   $212,770   $381,838   $499,569   $528,269   $562,253  
Current expenditures6    114 180 356 861 1,844 1,942 4,687 12,329 7  34,218 7  86,984 7  188,229 7  323,889 7  425,048 7  449,131 7  476,826 7 
Capital outlay8    26 35 70 154 371 258 1,014 2,662   4,659   6,506   17,781   43,357   53,528   57,375   62,910  
Interest on school debt   18 93 131 101 490   1,171   1,874   3,776   9,135   13,301   14,347   14,713  
Other current expenditures9   3 10 13 36 133   636   598 10  2,983   5,457   7,691   7,416   7,804  
Percentage distribution of total expenditures                                                    
Current expenditures6    81.3 83.5 83.6 83.1 79.6 82.8 80.3 79.0 7  84.1 7  90.6 7  88.5 7  84.8 7  85.1 7  85.0 7  84.8 7 
Capital outlay8    18.7 16.5 16.4 14.8 16.0 11.0 17.4 17.0   11.5   6.8   8.4   11.4   10.7   10.9   11.2  
Interest on school debt   1.8 4.0 5.6 1.7 3.1   2.9   2.0   1.8   2.4   2.7   2.7   2.6  
Other current expenditures9   0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8   1.6   0.6 10  1.4   1.4   1.5   1.4   1.4  
                                                   
Teacher salaries; income and expenditures
   per pupil and per capita
                                                   
Annual salary of classroom teachers11  $189   $195 $252 $325 $485 $871 $1,420 $1,441 $3,010 $4,995   $8,626   $15,970   $31,367   $41,807   $47,516   $48,804   $50,758  
Personal income per member of labor force1    1,726 1,320 3,378 5,738   9,640   19,621   36,793   56,762   67,416   70,224   74,412  
Total school expenditures per capita of total
   population
1.59   1.56 2.23 2.83 4.71 9.91 19.01 17.89 39 88   202   426   862   1,368   1,706   1,787   1,884  
National income per capita1    770.44 625.82 1,592 2,550   4,412   9,990   19,449   29,953   35,965   38,144   40,324  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13   13.99 16.67 27.85 53.32 86.70 88.09 210 375   816   2,272   4,980   7,394   9,316   9,778   10,337  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14 15.55   12.71 17.23 20.21 33.23 64.16 108.49 105.74 260 471   955   2,491   5,550   8,592   10,781   11,340   12,020  
National income per pupil in ADA13    4,416 3,720 10,658 13,964   21,188   58,719   127,000   190,793   230,880   245,447   260,823  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in
   ADA6,13,15
  0.10 0.12 0.18 0.33 0.50 0.50 1.17 2.11   4.56   12.73     41.22        
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13 0.12   0.10 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.40 0.63 0.60 1.46 2.65   5.34   13.95     47.90        
Amounts in constant 2007-08 dollars16     
Annual salary of classroom teachers11    $9,675 $17,562 $21,829 $26,906 $35,989   $48,343   $43,550   $52,297   $52,280   $52,476   $51,921   $52,639  
Personal income per member of labor force1    21,351 19,995 30,192 41,342   54,027   53,507   61,344   70,982   74,453   74,710   77,169  
Total school expenditures per capita of total
   population
  110 235 271 350 633   1,132   1,163   1,437   1,711   1,884   1,902   1,954  
National income per capita1    9,529 9,480 14,230 18,374   24,726   27,242   32,428   37,456   39,720   40,580   41,818  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13   592 1,072 1,335 1,880 2,703   4,573   6,195   8,303   9,246   10,288   10,403   10,720  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14   713 1,342 1,602 2,327 3,394   5,352   6,792   9,253   10,744   11,906   12,064   12,465  
National income per pupil in ADA13    54,613 56,355 95,271 100,607   118,744   160,125   211,743   238,589   254,981   261,125   270,488  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in
   ADA6,13,15
  3.7 6.2 7.6 10.5 15.2   25.6   34.7     47.9        
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13   4.4 7.8 9.1 13.1 19.1   29.9   38.0     55.7        
—Not available.    
1 Data on population and labor force are from the Census Bureau, and data on personal income and national income are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Population data through 1900 are based on total population from the decennial census. From 1909-10 to 1959-60, population data are total population, including armed forces overseas, as of July 1. Data for later years are for resident population that excludes armed forces overseas.
2 Data for 1869-70 through 1959-60 are school year enrollment. Data for later years are fall enrollment.    
3 Data for 1870-71.    
4 Estimated by the National Center for Education Statistics.    
5 Prior to 1919-20, data are for the number of different persons employed rather than number of positions.    
6 Prior to 1919-20, includes interest on school debt.    
7 Because of the modification of the scope of "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools," data for 1959-60 and later years are not entirely comparable with prior years.    
8 Beginning in 1969-70, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities.    
9 Includes summer schools, community colleges, and adult education. Beginning in 1959-60, also includes community services, formerly classified with "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools."
10 Excludes community colleges and adult education.    
11 Prior to 1959-60, average includes supervisors, principals, teachers, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff. Data for 1959-60 and later years are estimated by the National Education Association.    
12 Excludes current expenditures not allocable to pupil costs.    
13 "ADA" means average daily attendance in elementary and secondary schools.    
14 Expenditure figure is the sum of current expenditures allocable to pupil costs, capital outlay, and interest on school debt.    
15 Per-day rates derived by dividing annual rates by average length of term.    
16 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.    
NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Beginning in 1959-60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.    
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1869-70 through 1909-10; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1919-20 through 1949-50; Statistics of State School Systems, 1959-60 and 1969-70; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, 1979-80; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education, FY 1980; Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Questionnaire," 1999-2000 and 2003-04; Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education," 1989-90 through 2007-08, and "National Public Financial Survey," 1989-90 through 2006-07. Census Bureau, unpublished tabulations. Bureau of Economic Analysis, unpublished tabulations. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished tabulations. (This table was prepared September 2009.)
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