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Table 32. Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: Selected years, 186970 through 200506
Selected characteristic 1869–70 1879–80 1889–90 1899–1900 1909–10 1919–20 1929–30 1939–40 1949–50 1959–60 1969–70 1979–80 1989–90 1999–2000 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Population, pupils, and instructional staff                                                    
Total population (in thousands)1  38,558   50,156 62,622 75,995 90,490 104,514 121,878 131,028 149,188 177,830   201,385   225,055   246,819   279,040   290,448   293,192   295,896  
5- to 17-year-olds (in thousands)1  11,683   15,066 18,473 21,573 24,011 27,571 31,414 30,151 30,223 43,881   52,386   48,043   44,947   52,811   53,250   53,158   53,132  
5- to 17-year-olds as a percent of total population 30.3   30.0 29.5 28.4 26.5 26.4 25.8 23.0 20.3 24.7   26.0   21.3   18.2   18.9   18.3   18.1   18.0  
                                                     
Total enrollment in elementary and secondary schools (in thousands) 2  7,562 3  9,867 12,723 15,503 17,814 21,578 25,678 25,434 25,112 36,087   45,550   41,651   40,543   46,857   48,540   48,795   49,113  
Prekindergarten and grades 1–8 (in thousands) 7,481 3  9,757 12,520 14,984 16,899 19,378 21,279 18,833 19,387 27,602   32,513   28,034   29,152   33,488   34,202   34,179   34,205  
Grades 9–12 (in thousands) 80 3  110 203 519 915 2,200 4,399 6,601 5,725 8,485   13,037   13,616   11,390   13,369   14,338   14,617   14,908  
                                                     
Enrollment as a percent of total population 19.6 3  19.7 20.3 20.4 19.7 20.6 21.1 19.4 16.8 20.3   22.6   18.5   16.4   16.8   16.7   16.6   16.6  
Enrollment as a percent of 5- to 17-year-olds 64.7 3  65.5 68.9 71.9 74.2 78.3 81.7 84.4 83.1 82.2   87.0   86.7   90.2   88.7   91.2   91.8   92.4  
Percent of total enrollment in high schools (grades 9–12 and postgraduate) 1.1 3  1.1 1.6 3.3 5.1 10.2 17.1 26.0 22.8 23.5   28.6   32.7   28.1   28.5   29.5   30.0   30.4  
High school graduates (in thousands)   22 62 111 231 592 1,143 1,063 1,627   2,589   2,748   2,320   2,554   2,753   2,795   2,815  
                                                     
Average daily attendance (in thousands) 4,077   6,144 8,154 10,633 12,827 16,150 21,265 22,042 22,284 32,477   41,934   38,289   37,799   43,807   45,326   45,625   45,932  
Total number of days attended by pupils enrolled (in millions) 539   801 1,098 1,535 2,011 2,615 3,673 3,858 3,964 5,782   7,501   6,835 4    7,858   8,152   8,205   8,250  
Percent of enrolled pupils attending daily 59.3   62.3 64.1 68.6 72.1 74.8 82.8 86.7 88.7 90.0   90.4   90.1 4    94.3   92.8      
Average length of school term, in days 132.2   130.3 134.7 144.3 157.5 161.9 172.7 175.0 177.9 178.0   178.9   178.5 4    179.4   179.9   179.8   179.6  
Average number of days attended per pupil 78.4   81.1 86.3 99.0 113.0 121.2 143.0 151.7 157.9 160.2   161.7   160.8 4           
                                                     
Total instructional staff (in thousands)   678 880 912 963 1,457   2,286   2,406   2,986   3,819   4,053   4,120   4,151  
Supervisors (in thousands)   7 7 5                
Principals (in thousands)   14 31 32 43 64   91   106   126   137   165   166   156  
Teachers, librarians, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff
(in thousands)5 
201   287 364 423 523 657 843 875 920 1,393   2,195   2,300   2,860   3,682   3,888   3,954   3,995  
Males (in thousands) 78   123 126 127 110 93 140 195 196 404 4  711 4  782 4           
Females (in thousands) 123   164 238 296 413 585 703 681 724 989 4  1,484 4  1,518 4           
Percent male 38.7   42.8 34.5 29.9 21.1 14.1 16.6 22.2 21.3 29.0 4  32.4 4  34.0 4           
Total revenues and expenditures Amounts in current dollars  
Total revenue receipts (in millions)   $143 $220 $433 $970 $2,089 $2,261 $5,437 $14,747   $40,267   $96,881   $208,548    $372,944   $462,026   $487,754   $520,644  
Federal government   2 7 40 156 652   3,220   9,504   12,701   27,098   41,923   44,810   47,554  
State governments   160 354 684 2,166 5,768   16,063   45,349   98,239   184,613   217,384   228,554   242,151  
Local sources, including intermediate   808 1,728 1,536 3,116 8,327   20,985   42,029   97,608   161,233   202,718   214,390   230,939  
Percentage distribution of revenue receipts                                                    
Federal government   0.3 0.4 1.8 2.9 4.4   8.0   9.8   6.1   7.3   9.1   9.2   9.1  
State governments   16.5 16.9 30.3 39.8 39.1   39.9   46.8   47.1   49.5   47.1   46.9   46.5  
Local sources, including intermediate   83.2 82.7 68.0 57.3 56.5   52.1   43.4   46.8   43.2   43.9   44.0   44.4  
Total expenditures for public schools (in millions) $63   $78 $141 $215 $426 $1,036 $2,317 $2,344 $5,838 $15,613   $40,683   $95,962   $212,770    $381,838   $474,242   $499,569   $528,735  
Current expenditures6    114 180 356 861 1,844 1,942 4,687 12,329 7  34,218 7  86,984 7  188,229 7  323,889 7  403,390 7  425,048 7  449,595 7 
Capital outlay8    26 35 70 154 371 258 1,014 2,662   4,659   6,506   17,781   43,357   50,843   53,528   57,375  
Interest on school debt   18 93 131 101 490   1,171   1,874   3,776   9,135   13,081   13,301   14,347  
Other current expenditures9    3 10 13 36 133   636   598 10  2,983   5,457   6,928   7,691   7,418  
Percentage distribution of total expenditures                                                    
Current expenditures6    81.3 83.5 83.6 83.1 79.6 82.8 80.3 79.0 7  84.1 7  90.6 7  88.5 7  84.8 7  85.1 7  85.1 7  85.0 7 
Capital outlay8    18.7 16.5 16.4 14.8 16.0 11.0 17.4 17.0   11.5   6.8   8.4   11.4   10.7   10.7   10.9  
Interest on school debt   1.8 4.0 5.6 1.7 3.1   2.9   2.0   1.8   2.4   2.8   2.7   2.7  
Other current expenditures9    0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8   1.6   0.6 10  1.4   1.4   1.5   1.5   1.4  
Teacher salaries; income and expenditures per pupil and per capita                                                    
Annual salary of classroom teachers11  $189   $195 $252 $325 $485 $871 $1,420 $1,441 $3,010 $4,995   $8,626   $15,970   $31,367   $41,807   $46,605   $47,659   $49,026  
Personal income per member of labor force1    1,730 1,320 3,379 5,745   9,643   19,647   37,038   55,984   62,546   65,991   68,777  
Total school expenditures per capita of total population 1.59   1.56 2.23 2.83 4.71 9.91 19.01 17.89 39 88   202   426   862   1,368   1,633   1,704   1,787  
National income per capita1    772.90 627.35 1,595 2,563   4,418   9,994   19,555   29,518   33,164   35,154   37,087  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13    13.99 16.67 27.85 53.32 86.70 88.09 210 375   816   2,272   4,980   7,394   8,900   9,316   9,788  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14  15.55   12.71 17.23 20.21 33.23 64.16 108.49 105.74 260 471   955   2,491   5,550   8,592   10,310   10,781   11,350  
National income per pupil in ADA13    4,430 3,729 10,680 14,035   21,217   58,740   127,690   188,024   212,513   225,900   238,920  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in ADA6,13,15    0.10 0.12 0.18 0.33 0.50 0.50 1.17 2.11   4.56   12.73            
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13  0.12   0.10 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.40 0.63 0.60 1.46 2.65   5.34   13.95            
  Amounts in constant 2006–07 dollars16 
Annual salary of classroom teachers11    $9,330 $16,935 $21,049 $25,945 $34,703   $46,615   $41,994   $50,429   $50,412   $51,124   $50,753   $50,294  
Personal income per member of labor force1    20,637 19,281 29,128 39,915   52,110   51,663   59,545   67,508   68,611   70,276   70,556  
Total school expenditures per capita of total population   106 227 261 337 610   1,092   1,121   1,386   1,650   1,791   1,815   1,833  
National income per capita1    9,218 9,164 13,751 17,807   23,875   26,278   31,439   35,594   36,380   37,436   38,046  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13    571 1,034 1,287 1,813 2,606   4,410   5,974   8,006   8,915   9,763   9,921   10,041  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14    687 1,294 1,545 2,244 3,272   5,161   6,549   8,923   10,360   11,310   11,481   11,643  
National income per pupil in ADA13    52,830 54,474 92,060 97,505   114,656   154,459   205,288   226,725   233,121   240,567   245,099  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in ADA6,13,15    3.5 6.0 7.3 10.1 14.7   24.6   33.5            
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13    4.3 7.5 8.8 12.6 18.4   28.9   36.7            
—Not available.
1 Data on population and labor force are from the Census Bureau, and data on personal income and national income are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Population data through 1900 are based on total popula-tion from the decennial census. From 1909–10 to 1959–60, population data are total population, including armed forces over-seas, as of July 1. Data for later years are for resident population that excludes armed forces overseas.
2 Data for 1869–70 through 1959–60 are school year enrollment. Data for later years are fall enrollment.
3 Data for 1870–71.
4 Estimated by the National Center for Education Statistics.
5 Prior to 1919–20, data are for the number of different persons employed rather than number of positions.
6 Prior to 1919–20, includes interest on school debt.
7 Because of the modification of the scope of "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools," data for 1959–60 and later years are not entirely comparable with prior years.
8 Beginning in 1969–70, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities.
9 Includes summer schools, community colleges, and adult education. Beginning in 1959–60, also includes community ser-vices, formerly classified with "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools."
10 Excludes community colleges and adult education.
11 Prior to 1959–60, average includes supervisors, principals, teachers, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff. Data for 1959–60 and later years are estimated by the National Education Association.
12 Excludes current expenditures not allocable to pupil costs.
13 "ADA" means average daily attendance in elementary and secondary schools.
14 Expenditure figure is the sum of current expenditures allocable to pupil costs, capital outlay, and interest on school debt.
15 Per-day rates derived by dividing annual rates by average length of term.
16 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Beginning in 1959–60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the United States Com-missioner of Education, 1869–70 through 1909–10; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1919–20 through 1949–50; Statistics of State School Systems, 1959–60 and 1969–70; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, 1979–80; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education, FY 1980; Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Questionnaire," 1999–2000 and 2003–04; Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Non-fiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education," 1989–90 through 2006–07, and "National Public Financial Survey," 1989–90 through 2005–06. Census Bureau, unpublished tabulations. Bureau of Economic Analysis, unpublished tabulations. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished tabulations. (This table was prepared October 2008.)
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