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Digest of Education Statistics
2001 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest

Table 415. Total public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of the gross domestic product: Selected countries, 1985 to 1998

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                  |                                 |    Primary and secondary        |
                  |      All institutions\1\        |       institutions              |Higher education institutions
     Country      |_________________________________|_________________________________|__________________________________
                  |1985 |1990 |1995 |1997\2\| 1998  |1985 |1990 |1995 |1997\2\|  1998 |1985 |1990 |1995 |1997\2\|   1998
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|________
        1         |  2  |  3  |  4  |   5   |   6   |  7  |  8  |  9  |  10   |  11   | 12  | 13  | 14  |  15   |   16
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|________
Average for year .| 5.3 | 4.9 | 4.9 |   5.1 |   5.3 | 3.7 | 3.5 | 3.4 |   3.6 |   3.6 | 1.1 | 1.0 | 0.9 |   1.0 |    1.3
Average for coun- |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
  tries reporting |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
  data for all    |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
  years ..........| 5.3 | 5.3 | 5.3 |   5.2 |   5.5 | 3.7 | 3.7 | 3.6 |   3.6 |   3.7 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.1 |   1.0 |    1.3
                  |_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|________
Australia ........| 5.4 | 4.3 | 4.5 |   4.3 |   4.8 | 3.5 | 3.2 | 3.2 |   3.3 |   3.5 | 1.7 | 1.0 | 1.2 |   1.0 |    1.2
Austria ..........| 5.6 | 5.2 | 5.3 |   6.0 |   6.3 | 3.7 | 3.6 | 3.8 |   4.2 |   4.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.9 |   1.3 |    1.6
Belgium\3\ .......| 6.3 | 4.8 | 5.0 |   4.8 |   5.0 | 4.0 | 3.4 | 3.4 |   3.3 |   3.4 | 1.0 | 0.8 | 0.9 |   0.8 |    1.0
Canada ...........| 6.1 | 5.4 | 5.8 |   5.4 |   5.7 | 4.1 | 3.7 | 4.0 |   4.0 |   3.7 | 2.0 | 1.5 | 1.5 |   1.2 |    1.8
Czech Republic ...| --- | --- | 4.8 |   4.5 |   4.3 | --- | --- | 3.4 |   3.2 |   2.9 | --- | --- | 0.7 |   0.7 |    0.8
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Denmark ..........| 6.2 | 6.2 | 6.5 |   6.5 |   8.3 | 4.7 | 4.4 | 4.2 |   4.3 |   4.9 | 1.2 | 1.3 | 1.3 |   1.1 |    2.2
Finland ..........| 5.8 | 6.4 | 6.6 |   6.3 |   6.2 | --- | 4.3 | 4.2 |   3.8 |   3.8 | --- | 1.2 | 1.7 |   1.7 |    2.0
France ...........| --- | 5.1 | 5.8 |   5.8 |   6.0 | --- | 3.7 | 4.1 |   4.1 |   4.2 | --- | 0.8 | 1.0 |   1.0 |    1.0
Germany\4\ .......| 4.6 | --- | 4.5 |   4.5 |   4.6 | 2.8 | --- | 2.9 |   2.9 |   3.0 | 1.0 | --- | 1.0 |   1.0 |    1.1
Greece ...........| --- | --- | 3.7 |   3.5 |   3.5 | --- | --- | 2.8 |   2.5 |   2.3 | --- | --- | 0.8 |   1.0 |    1.1
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Hungary ..........| --- | 5.0 | 4.9 |   4.5 |   4.6 | --- | 3.5 | 3.3 |   2.9 |   2.9 | --- | 0.8 | 0.8 |   0.8 |    0.9
Iceland ..........| --- | 4.3 | 4.5 |   5.1 |   7.1 | --- | 3.3 | 3.4 |   3.9 |   4.3 | --- | 0.6 | 0.7 |   0.7 |    2.2
Ireland ..........| 5.6 | 4.7 | 4.7 |   4.5 |   4.5 | 4.0 | 3.3 | 3.3 |   3.4 |   3.3 | 0.9 | 0.9 | 0.9 |   1.0 |    1.1
Italy ............| 4.7 | 5.8 | 4.5 |   4.6 |   4.9 | 3.2 | 4.1 | 3.2 |   3.4 |   3.5 | 0.6 | 1.0 | 0.7 |   0.6 |    0.8
Japan ............| --- | 3.6 | 3.6 |   3.6 |   3.5 | --- | 2.9 | 2.8 |   2.8 |   2.8 | --- | 0.4 | 0.4 |   0.5 |    0.4
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Korea ............| --- | --- | 3.6 |   4.4 |   4.1 | --- | --- | 3.0 |   3.4 |   3.1 | --- | --- | 0.3 |   0.5 |    0.4
Luxembourg .......| --- | --- | 4.3 |   4.2 |   --- | --- | --- | 4.2 |   4.1 |   --- | --- | --- | 0.1 |   0.1 |    ---
Mexico ...........| --- | 3.2 | 4.6 |   4.5 |   4.2 | --- | 2.2 | 3.4 |   3.3 |   3.0 | --- | 0.7 | 0.8 |   0.8 |    0.8
Netherlands ......| 6.2 | 5.7 | 4.6 |   4.3 |   4.9 | 4.1 | 3.6 | 3.0 |   2.9 |   3.1 | 1.5 | 1.6 | 1.1 |   1.1 |    1.4
New Zealand ......| --- | 5.5 | 5.3 |   6.1 |   7.2 | --- | 3.9 | 3.8 |   4.7 |   4.9 | --- | 1.2 | 1.1 |   1.0 |    1.8
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Norway ...........| 5.1 | 6.2 | 6.8 |   6.6 |   7.7 | 4.0 | 4.1 | 4.1 |   4.4 |   4.6 | 0.7 | 1.1 | 1.5 |   1.3 |    2.0
Poland ...........| --- | --- | 5.2 |   5.8 |   5.4 | --- | --- | 3.3 |   3.8 |   3.5 | --- | --- | 0.8 |   1.2 |    1.2
Portugal .........| --- | --- | 5.4 |   5.8 |   5.7 | --- | --- | 4.1 |   4.4 |   4.3 | --- | --- | 1.0 |   1.0 |    1.0
Russia ...........| --- | --- | 3.4 |   --- |   --- | --- | --- | 1.9 |   --- |   --- | --- | --- | 0.7 |   --- |    ---
Spain ............| 3.6 | 4.2 | 4.8 |   4.7 |   4.5 | 2.9 | 3.2 | 3.5 |   3.5 |   3.3 | 0.4 | 0.7 | 0.8 |   0.9 |    0.9
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Sweden ...........| --- | 5.3 | 6.6 |   6.8 |   8.0 | --- | 4.4 | 4.4 |   4.7 |   5.3 | --- | 1.0 | 1.6 |   1.6 |    2.1
Switzerland ......| 4.9 | 5.0 | 5.5 |   5.4 |   5.5 | 4.0 | 3.7 | 4.1 |   4.0 |   4.1 | 0.9 | 1.0 | 1.1 |   1.1 |    1.1
Turkey ...........| --- | 3.2 | 2.2 |   --- |   3.0 | --- | 2.3 | 1.4 |   --- |   1.8 | --- | 0.9 | 0.8 |   0.8 |    0.8
United Kingdom ...| 4.9 | 4.3 | 4.6 |   4.6 |   4.9 | 3.1 | 3.5 | 3.8 |   3.4 |   3.4 | 1.0 | 0.7 | 0.7 |   0.7 |    1.1
United States ....| 4.7 | 5.3 | 5.0 |   5.2 |   5.1 | 3.2 | 3.8 | 3.5 |   3.5 |   3.4 | 1.3 | 1.4 | 1.1 |   1.4 |    1.3
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|________

\1\Includes preprimary and other expenditures not classified by level.
\2\Due to the implementation of a new classification system post-1996 data are not comparable with earlier data.
\3\Flemish Belgium data only.
\4\Data for 1985 refer to West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany before unification).

NOTE: Direct public expenditure on educational services includes both amounts spent directly by governments to hire educational personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions. Figures for 1998 include public subsidies to households attributable for educational institutions and direct expenditures from international sources, and are not directly comparable with other years. Figures for 1985 also include transfers and payments to private entities, and thus are not strictly comparable with later figures.

SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education Database; Annual National Accounts, Vol. 1, 1997; and Education at a Glance, 2000 and 2001. (This table was prepared August 2001.)


2001 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest