Skip Navigation
small NCES header image

Table 415. Total public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of the gross domestic product: Selected countries, 1985 to 1998

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                  |                                 |    Primary and secondary        |
                  |      All institutions\1\        |       institutions              |Higher education institutions
     Country      |_________________________________|_________________________________|__________________________________
                  |1985 |1990 |1995 |1997\2\| 1998  |1985 |1990 |1995 |1997\2\|  1998 |1985 |1990 |1995 |1997\2\|   1998
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|________
        1         |  2  |  3  |  4  |   5   |   6   |  7  |  8  |  9  |  10   |  11   | 12  | 13  | 14  |  15   |   16
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|________
Average for year .| 5.3 | 4.9 | 4.9 |   5.1 |   5.3 | 3.7 | 3.5 | 3.4 |   3.6 |   3.6 | 1.1 | 1.0 | 0.9 |   1.0 |    1.3
Average for coun- |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
  tries reporting |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
  data for all    |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
  years ..........| 5.3 | 5.3 | 5.3 |   5.2 |   5.5 | 3.7 | 3.7 | 3.6 |   3.6 |   3.7 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.1 |   1.0 |    1.3
                  |_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|________
Australia ........| 5.4 | 4.3 | 4.5 |   4.3 |   4.8 | 3.5 | 3.2 | 3.2 |   3.3 |   3.5 | 1.7 | 1.0 | 1.2 |   1.0 |    1.2
Austria ..........| 5.6 | 5.2 | 5.3 |   6.0 |   6.3 | 3.7 | 3.6 | 3.8 |   4.2 |   4.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.9 |   1.3 |    1.6
Belgium\3\ .......| 6.3 | 4.8 | 5.0 |   4.8 |   5.0 | 4.0 | 3.4 | 3.4 |   3.3 |   3.4 | 1.0 | 0.8 | 0.9 |   0.8 |    1.0
Canada ...........| 6.1 | 5.4 | 5.8 |   5.4 |   5.7 | 4.1 | 3.7 | 4.0 |   4.0 |   3.7 | 2.0 | 1.5 | 1.5 |   1.2 |    1.8
Czech Republic ...| --- | --- | 4.8 |   4.5 |   4.3 | --- | --- | 3.4 |   3.2 |   2.9 | --- | --- | 0.7 |   0.7 |    0.8
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Denmark ..........| 6.2 | 6.2 | 6.5 |   6.5 |   8.3 | 4.7 | 4.4 | 4.2 |   4.3 |   4.9 | 1.2 | 1.3 | 1.3 |   1.1 |    2.2
Finland ..........| 5.8 | 6.4 | 6.6 |   6.3 |   6.2 | --- | 4.3 | 4.2 |   3.8 |   3.8 | --- | 1.2 | 1.7 |   1.7 |    2.0
France ...........| --- | 5.1 | 5.8 |   5.8 |   6.0 | --- | 3.7 | 4.1 |   4.1 |   4.2 | --- | 0.8 | 1.0 |   1.0 |    1.0
Germany\4\ .......| 4.6 | --- | 4.5 |   4.5 |   4.6 | 2.8 | --- | 2.9 |   2.9 |   3.0 | 1.0 | --- | 1.0 |   1.0 |    1.1
Greece ...........| --- | --- | 3.7 |   3.5 |   3.5 | --- | --- | 2.8 |   2.5 |   2.3 | --- | --- | 0.8 |   1.0 |    1.1
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Hungary ..........| --- | 5.0 | 4.9 |   4.5 |   4.6 | --- | 3.5 | 3.3 |   2.9 |   2.9 | --- | 0.8 | 0.8 |   0.8 |    0.9
Iceland ..........| --- | 4.3 | 4.5 |   5.1 |   7.1 | --- | 3.3 | 3.4 |   3.9 |   4.3 | --- | 0.6 | 0.7 |   0.7 |    2.2
Ireland ..........| 5.6 | 4.7 | 4.7 |   4.5 |   4.5 | 4.0 | 3.3 | 3.3 |   3.4 |   3.3 | 0.9 | 0.9 | 0.9 |   1.0 |    1.1
Italy ............| 4.7 | 5.8 | 4.5 |   4.6 |   4.9 | 3.2 | 4.1 | 3.2 |   3.4 |   3.5 | 0.6 | 1.0 | 0.7 |   0.6 |    0.8
Japan ............| --- | 3.6 | 3.6 |   3.6 |   3.5 | --- | 2.9 | 2.8 |   2.8 |   2.8 | --- | 0.4 | 0.4 |   0.5 |    0.4
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Korea ............| --- | --- | 3.6 |   4.4 |   4.1 | --- | --- | 3.0 |   3.4 |   3.1 | --- | --- | 0.3 |   0.5 |    0.4
Luxembourg .......| --- | --- | 4.3 |   4.2 |   --- | --- | --- | 4.2 |   4.1 |   --- | --- | --- | 0.1 |   0.1 |    ---
Mexico ...........| --- | 3.2 | 4.6 |   4.5 |   4.2 | --- | 2.2 | 3.4 |   3.3 |   3.0 | --- | 0.7 | 0.8 |   0.8 |    0.8
Netherlands ......| 6.2 | 5.7 | 4.6 |   4.3 |   4.9 | 4.1 | 3.6 | 3.0 |   2.9 |   3.1 | 1.5 | 1.6 | 1.1 |   1.1 |    1.4
New Zealand ......| --- | 5.5 | 5.3 |   6.1 |   7.2 | --- | 3.9 | 3.8 |   4.7 |   4.9 | --- | 1.2 | 1.1 |   1.0 |    1.8
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Norway ...........| 5.1 | 6.2 | 6.8 |   6.6 |   7.7 | 4.0 | 4.1 | 4.1 |   4.4 |   4.6 | 0.7 | 1.1 | 1.5 |   1.3 |    2.0
Poland ...........| --- | --- | 5.2 |   5.8 |   5.4 | --- | --- | 3.3 |   3.8 |   3.5 | --- | --- | 0.8 |   1.2 |    1.2
Portugal .........| --- | --- | 5.4 |   5.8 |   5.7 | --- | --- | 4.1 |   4.4 |   4.3 | --- | --- | 1.0 |   1.0 |    1.0
Russia ...........| --- | --- | 3.4 |   --- |   --- | --- | --- | 1.9 |   --- |   --- | --- | --- | 0.7 |   --- |    ---
Spain ............| 3.6 | 4.2 | 4.8 |   4.7 |   4.5 | 2.9 | 3.2 | 3.5 |   3.5 |   3.3 | 0.4 | 0.7 | 0.8 |   0.9 |    0.9
                  |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |       |
Sweden ...........| --- | 5.3 | 6.6 |   6.8 |   8.0 | --- | 4.4 | 4.4 |   4.7 |   5.3 | --- | 1.0 | 1.6 |   1.6 |    2.1
Switzerland ......| 4.9 | 5.0 | 5.5 |   5.4 |   5.5 | 4.0 | 3.7 | 4.1 |   4.0 |   4.1 | 0.9 | 1.0 | 1.1 |   1.1 |    1.1
Turkey ...........| --- | 3.2 | 2.2 |   --- |   3.0 | --- | 2.3 | 1.4 |   --- |   1.8 | --- | 0.9 | 0.8 |   0.8 |    0.8
United Kingdom ...| 4.9 | 4.3 | 4.6 |   4.6 |   4.9 | 3.1 | 3.5 | 3.8 |   3.4 |   3.4 | 1.0 | 0.7 | 0.7 |   0.7 |    1.1
United States ....| 4.7 | 5.3 | 5.0 |   5.2 |   5.1 | 3.2 | 3.8 | 3.5 |   3.5 |   3.4 | 1.3 | 1.4 | 1.1 |   1.4 |    1.3
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|_______|_____|_____|_____|_______|________

\1\Includes preprimary and other expenditures not classified by level.
\2\Due to the implementation of a new classification system post-1996 data are not comparable with earlier data.
\3\Flemish Belgium data only.
\4\Data for 1985 refer to West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany before unification).

NOTE: Direct public expenditure on educational services includes both amounts spent directly by governments to hire educational personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions. Figures for 1998 include public subsidies to households attributable for educational institutions and direct expenditures from international sources, and are not directly comparable with other years. Figures for 1985 also include transfers and payments to private entities, and thus are not strictly comparable with later figures.

SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education Database; Annual National Accounts, Vol. 1, 1997; and Education at a Glance, 2000 and 2001. (This table was prepared August 2001.)

Would you like to help us improve our products and website by taking a short survey?

YES, I would like to take the survey

or

No Thanks

The survey consists of a few short questions and takes less than one minute to complete.
National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education