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Digest of Education Statistics
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES  

LIST OF 2000 DIGEST TABLES

Tables   Figures
 Chapter 1.  All Levels of Education
Enrollment, Teachers, and Schools
Table 1.Estimated number of participants in elementary and secondary education and in degree-granting institutions: Fall 2000
Table 2.Enrollment in educational institutions, by level and control of institution: Fall 1980 to fall 2005
Table 3.Enrollment in educational institutions, by level and by control of institution: 1869-70 to fall 2010
Table 4.Teachers in elementary and secondary schools, and senior instructional staff in institutions of higher education, by control of institution: Fall 1970 to fall 2010
Table 5.Educational institutions, by level and control of institution: 1980-81 to 1998-99

Enrollment Rates
Table 6.Percent of the population 3 to 34 years old enrolled in school, by age: April 1940 to October 1999
Table 7.Percent of the population 3 to 34 years old enrolled in school, by race/ethnicity, sex, and age: October 1975 to 1999

Educational Attainment
Table 8.Years of school completed by persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by race/ethnicity and sex: 1910 to 1999
Table 9.Highest level of education attained by persons age 18 and over, by age, sex, and race/ethnicity: March 1999
Table 10.Number of persons age 18 and over who hold a bachelor's or higher degree, by field of study, sex, race, and age: Spring 1993
Table 11.Educational attainment of persons 18 years old and over, by state: 1990 to 1998
Table 12.Educational attainment of persons 25 years old and over, by state and race/ethnicity: April 1990
Table 13.Educational attainment of persons 25 years old and over, for the 25 largest states: March 1998
Table 14.Educational attainment of persons 25 years old and over, for the 15 largest metropolitan areas: March 1995

Population
Table 15.Estimates of resident population, by age group: July 1, 1970 to July 1, 1999
Table 16.Estimates of school-age resident population, by race and sex: July 1, 1970 to July 1, 1999
Table 17.Estimated total and school-age resident populations, by state: 1970 to 1999

Characteristics of Families With Children
Table 18.Families, by family status and presence of own children under 18: 1970 to 1998
Table 19.Characteristics of families with own children under 18, by family status and race/ethnicity: 1998
Table 20.Household income and poverty rates, by state: 1990 and 1997-98
Table 21.Poverty status of persons, families, and children under 18, by race/ethnicity: 1959 to 1998

Opinions on Education
Table 22.Average grade that the public would give the schools in their community 1974 to 1999
Table 23.Items most frequently cited by the general public as a major problem facing the local public schools: 1970 to 1999
Table 24.Public opinion of public and private school choice: 1989 to 1999
Table 25.Percent of elementary and secondary school children whose parents are involved in school activities and distribution of children by average grades, by selected child, parent, and school characteristics: 1996
Table 26.Percent of elementary school children whose parents are involved in education-related activities, by selected child, parent, and school characteristics: 1996
Table 27.Teachers' perceptions about serious problems in their schools, by type and control of school: 1990-91 and 1993-94
Table 28.Teachers' perceptions about teaching and school conditions, by type and control of school: 1993-94

Charitable Contributions
Table 29.Public's level of confidence in various institutions: 1996 and 1998
Table 30.Percentage of households contributing to education and other charitable organizations and average annual donation, by type of charity: 1989, 1991, 1993, and 1995

Finances
Table 31.Total expenditures of educational institutions related to the gross domestic product, by level of institution: 1929-30 to 1999-2000
Table 32.Total expenditures of educational institutions, by level and control of institution: 1899-1900 to 1999-2000
Table 33.Governmental expenditures, by level of government and function: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 34.Direct general expenditures of state and local governments for all functions and for education, by level and state: 1995-96
Table 35.Direct general expenditures per capita of state and local governments for all functions and for education, by level and state: 1995-96
Table 36.Gross domestic product, state and local expenditures, personal income, disposable personal income, median family income, and population: 1929 to 1999
Table 37.Gross domestic product deflator, Consumer Price Index, education price indexes, and federal budget composite deflator: 1919 to 2000
 Chapter 2.  Elementary and Secondary Education
Enrollment
Table 38.Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: 186970 to 199798
Table 39.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by level and state: Fall 1984 to fall 1999
Table 40.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by grade and state: Fall 1998
Table 41.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by grade and state: Fall 1997
Table 42.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by grade: Fall 1984 to fall 1998
Table 43.Average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1969-70 to 1997-98
Table 44.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by race/ethnicity and state: Fall 1986 and fall 1998
Table 45.Enrollment of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in preprimary programs, by level and control of program and by attendance status: October 1965 to October 1999
Table 46.Children of prekindergarten through second grade age, by enrollment status, maternal characteristics, and household income: 1991, 1995, and 1999
Table 47.Percent of public school kindergarten teachers indicating the importance of various factors for kindergarten readiness: Spring 1993
Table 48.Child care arrangements of preschool children, by age, race/ethnicity, and household income: 1991, 1995, and 1999
Table 49.Participation of public kindergarten children in selected activities 5 days a week, by length and size of class and teacher preparation: Spring 1993
Table 50.General knowledge, reading, and mathematics scores and classroom behavior of kindergarten students, by child and family characteristics: Fall 1998
Table 51.Percentage distribution of preschool children under 6 years old, by type of primary nonparental care arrangement, and average hours in center-based programs, by child and family characteristics: 1995
Table 52.Public school pupils transported at public expense and current expenditures for transportation: 1929-30 to 1997-98
Table 53.Children 0 to 21 years old served in federally supported programs for the disabled, by type of disability: 1976-77 to 1998-99
Table 54.Percentage distribution of disabled persons 3 to 21 years old receiving education services for the disabled, by age group and educational environment: United States and outlying areas: 1997-98
Table 55.State legislation on gifted and talented programs and number and percent of students receiving services in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1993-94 and 1995-96
Table 56.Number of children served under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act, State Operated Programs, by age group and state: 1990-91, 1996-97 to 1998-99
Table 57.Enrollment in grades 9 to 12 in public and private schools compared with population 14 to 17 years of age: 1889-90 to fall 1999
Table 58.Enrollment in foreign language courses compared with enrollment in grades 9 to 12 in public secondary schools: Fall 1948 to fall 1994
Table 59.Student participation in school programs and services, by control, level of school, and type of community: 1993-94

Private Elementary and Secondary Schools
Table 60.Private elementary and secondary enrollment, teachers, and schools, by selected characteristics: Fall 1997
Table 61.Private elementary and secondary staff and student/staff ratios, by level and orientation of school: 1993-94
Table 62.Private elementary and secondary enrollment and schools, by amount of tuition, level, and orientation of school: 1993-94
Table 63.Summary statistics on Catholic elementary and secondary schools, by level: 1919-20 to 1999-2000
Table 64.Private elementary and secondary schools, enrollment, teachers, and high school graduates, by state: Fall 1997

Teachers and Other Instructional Staff
Table 65.Public and private elementary and secondary teachers and pupil/teacher ratios, by level: Fall 1955 to fall 1999
Table 66.Public elementary and secondary teachers, by level and state: Fall 1994 to fall 1999
Table 67.Teachers, enrollment, and pupil/teacher ratios in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Fall 1993 to fall 1998
Table 68.Teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: 1993-94
Table 69.Highest degree earned, number of years teaching experience, and average class size for teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1993-94
Table 70.Selected characteristics of public school teachers: Spring 1961 to spring 1996
Table 71.Public secondary school teachers, by subject taught: Spring 1966 to spring 1996
Table 72.Percent of vocational and nonvocational public school teachers of grades 9 to 12, by selected demographic and educational characteristics: 1993-94
Table 73.Mobility of public and private elementary and secondary teachers, by selected school and teacher characteristics: 1988-89 to 1994-95
Table 74.Average salaries for full-time teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: 1993-94
Table 75.Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: 1959-60 to 1998-99
Table 76.Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1969-70 to 1998-99
Table 77.Minimum and average teacher salaries, by state: 1990-91, 1997-98, and 1998-99
Table 78.Average annual salary of instructional staff in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1939-40 to 1998-99
Table 79.Estimated average annual salary of instructional staff in public elementary and secondary schools and average annual earnings of full-time employees in all industries: 1929-30 to 1998-99
Table 80.Staff employed in public elementary and secondary school systems, by functional area: 1949-50 to fall 1998
Table 81.Staff employed in public school systems, by type of assignment and state: Fall 1998
Table 82.Staff employed in public school systems, by type of assignment and state: Fall 1997
Table 83.Staff and teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Fall 1992 to fall 1998
Table 84.Staff, enrollment, and pupil/staff ratios in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Fall 1992 to fall 1998
Table 85.Principals in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: 1993-94
Table 86.Public elementary and secondary students, schools, pupil/teacher ratios, and finances, by type of locale: 1997 and 1998

Schools and School Districts
Table 87.Public school districts and public and private elementary and secondary schools: 1929-30 to 1998-99
Table 88.Public school districts and enrollment, by size of district: 1989-90 to 1998-99
Table 89.Number of public elementary and secondary local education agencies, by state and type of agency: 1997-98 and 1998-99
Table 90.Selected statistics on enrollment, teachers, graduates and dropouts in public school districts enrolling more than 15,000 students, by state: 1990, 1997, and 1998
Table 91.Revenues and expenditures of public school districts enrolling more than 15,000 pupils, by state: 1996-97
Table 92.Enrollment, poverty, and federal funds for the 100 largest school districts: 1994-95, 1996-97, 1998, and 2000
Table 93.Public elementary and secondary schools, by type of school: 1967-68 to 1998-99
Table 94.Public elementary and secondary schools, by type and size of school: 1998-99
Table 95.Average size and distribution of enrollment of public elementary and secondary schools, by type: 1982-83 to 1998-99
Table 96.Public elementary and secondary school students, by racial/ethnic enrollment concentration of school: Fall 1994 and fall 1998
Table 97.Public elementary and secondary schools, by type and state: 1990-91 to 1998-99
Table 98.Public elementary schools, by grade span and average school size, by state: 1998-99
Table 99.Public secondary schools, by grade span and average school size, by state: 1998-99
Table 100.Percent of public schools with building deficiencies and renovation plans, by level, enrollment size, metropolitan status, and free lunch eligibility: 1999

High School Seniors, Completions, and Dropouts
Table 101.High school graduates compared with population 17 years of age, by sex and control of school: 1869-70 to 1999-2000
Table 102.Public high school graduates, by state: 1969-70 to 1999-2000
Table 103.High school graduates and dropouts in public elementary and secondary schools, by race/ethnicity and state: 1997-98
Table 104.General Educational Development (GED) credentials issued, and number and age of test takers: United States and outlying areas, 1971 to 1999
Table 105.Distribution of 18- to 29-year-olds, by high school completion status and selected characteristics: 1997 to 1999
Table 106.Percent of high school dropouts (status dropouts) among persons 16 to 24 years old, by sex and race/ethnicity: April 1960 to October 1999
Table 107.Percent of high school dropouts (status dropouts) among persons 16 to 24 years old, by income level, 1970 to October 1999
Table 108.Students with disabilities exiting the educational system, by age, type of disability, and basis of exit: United States and outlying areas, 1996-97 and 1997-98
Table 109.Postsecondary education and employment status, wages earned, and living arrangements of special education students out of secondary school up to 3 years: 1990

Educational Achievement
Table 110.Average student proficiency in reading, by age and selected characteristics of students: 1971 to 1999
Table 111.Student proficiency in reading, by percentile, age, and sex: 1971 to 1999
Table 112.Student proficiency in reading, by age, amount of time spent on homework and reading habits: 1984, 1994, 1996, and 1999
Table 113.Percent of students at or above selected reading proficiency levels, by sex, race/ethnicity, and age: 1971 to 1999
Table 114.Average proficiency in reading for 4th-graders in public schools, by selected characteristics, and state: 1994 and 1998
Table 115.Average proficiency in reading for 8th-graders in public schools, by selected characteristics, and state: 1998
Table 116.Percentage distribution of 4th-graders in public schools, by time spent on homework and television viewing each day: 1992 and 1996
Table 117.Average writing performance of 4th-, 8th-, and 11th-graders, by selected characteristics of students: 1984 to 1996
Table 118.Student values and attitudes toward writing, by grade level: 1984 to 1994
Table 119.Percent of students at or above selected history proficiency levels, by selected characteristics and grade level: 1994
Table 120.Average student proficiency in geography and U.S. history, by selected characteristics: 1994
Table 121.Percent of students at or above selected geography proficiency levels, by selected characteristics and grade level: 1994
Table 122.Average mathematics proficiency, by age and by selected characteristics of students: 1973 to 1999
Table 123.Percent of students at or above selected mathematics proficiency levels, by sex, race/ethnicity, control of school, and age: 1978 to 1999
Table 124.Mathematics performance of 17-year-olds, by highest mathematics course taken, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1978 to 1999
Table 125.Mathematics attainment for 4th-graders in public schools, by region and state: 1996
Table 126.Mathematics attainment for 8th-graders in public schools, by region and state: 1996
Table 127.Length of school year and selected statistics on mathematics education for students in public schools, by region and state: 1996
Table 128.Average science proficiency, by age and by selected characteristics of students: 1970 to 1999
Table 129.Percent of students at or above selected science proficiency levels, by sex, race/ethnicity, control of school, and age: 1977 to 1999
Table 130.Average performance in science for 8th-graders in public schools, by selected characteristics and state: 1996
Table 131.Twelfth-graders' achievement on history, mathematics, reading, and science tests: 1992
Table 132.Performance of eighth-grade students in music, theatre, and visual arts, by selected characteristics of students: 1997
Table 133.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages, by race/ethnicity: 1986-87 to 1999-2000
Table 134.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages for college-bound high school seniors, by sex: 1966-67 to 1999-2000
Table 135.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages, by selected student characteristics: 1995-96, 1997-98, and 1999-2000
Table 136.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages, by state: 1987-88 to 1999-2000
Table 137.American College Testing (ACT) score averages, by sex: 1970 to 2000
Table 138.Average number of Carnegie units earned by public high school graduates in various subject fields, by student characteristics: 1982 to 1998
Table 139.Average number of Carnegie units earned by public school graduates in vocational education courses, by student characteristics: 1982 to 1998
Table 140.Percentage of high school graduates taking selected mathematics and science courses in high school, by sex and race/ethnicity: 1982 to 1998
Table 141.Percent of high school graduates earning minimum credits in selected combinations of academic courses, by sex and race/ethnicity: 1982 to 1998

Student Activities and Behavior
Table 142.Reasons given by twelfth-graders for taking current mathematics and science classes, by selected student and school characteristics: 1992
Table 143.Expected occupations of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders at age 30, by selected student and school characteristics: 1988, 1990, and 1992
Table 144.Eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-graders' attitudes about school climate, by student and school characteristics: 1988, 1990, and 1992
Table 145.Percentage of 3- to 5-year-olds not yet enrolled in kindergarten, who have participated in home literacy activities with a family member, by selected child and family characteristics: 1993 and 1999
Table 146.Percent of high school seniors who say they engage in various activities, by student characteristics: 1982 and 1992
Table 147.Percent of high school seniors who participate in selected school-sponsored extracurricular activities, by student characteristics: 1980 and 1992
Table 148.Percentage of students in grades 9 through 12 who reported experience with drugs and violence on school property, by race/ethnicity, grade, and sex: 1997 and 1999
Table 149.Percent of 12- to 17-year olds reporting drug use during the past 30 days and the past year: 1982 to 1998
Table 150.Percent of high school seniors reporting drug use, by type of drug and frequency of use: 1975 to 1999
Table 151.Percent of public schools reporting crime incidents and the seriousness of crime incidents reported, by school characteristics: 1996-97

State Regulations
Table 152.Ages for compulsory school attendance, special education services for students, policies for year-round schools, and kindergarten programs, by state: 1997 and 1995
Table 153.Tenth- and twelfth-graders' attendance patterns, by selected student and school characteristics: 1990 and 1992
Table 154.State requirements for high school graduation, in Carnegie units: 1993, 1996, and 1998
Table 155.States using minimum-competency testing, by government level setting standards, grade levels assessed, and expected uses of standards: 1995-96
Table 156.State assessment programs in language arts, reading, and writing: 1997-98
Table 157.States requiring testing for initial certification of teachers, by authorization, year enacted, year effective, and test used: 1990 and 1999

Revenues and Expenditures
Table 158.Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds: 1919-20 to 1997-98
Table 159.Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source and state: 1997-98
Table 160.Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source and state: 1996-97
Table 161.Funds and staff for state education agencies, by source of funding and state: 1992-93
Table 162.Summary of expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by purpose: 1919-20 to 1997-98
Table 163.Current expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by state: 1969-70 to 1999-2000
Table 164.Total expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by function and state: 1997-98
Table 165.Total expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by function and state: 1996-97
Table 166.Total expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by function and subfunction: 1990-91 to 1997-98
Table 167.Expenditures for instruction in public elementary and secondary schools, by subfunction and state: 1996-97 and 1997-98
Table 168.Current expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1959-60 to 1997-98
Table 169.Current expenditures per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1969-70 to 1997-98
Table 170.Total and current expenditure per pupil in public elementary and secondary schools: 1919-20 to 1999-2000
 Chapter 3.  Postsecondary Education
Degree-Granting Institutions
Enrollment
Table 171.Enrollment, staff, and degrees conferred by degree-granting and non-degree-granting institutions: Fall 1998 and 1997 and 1997-98
Table 172.Historical summary of faculty, students, degrees, and finances in degree-granting institutions: 1869-70 to 1997-98
Table 173.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: 1947 to 1998
Table 174.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by control and type of institution: 1965 to 1998
Table 175.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex, and age: 1970 to 2010
Table 176.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by level, sex, age, and attendance status of student: 1997
Table 177.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution, and age and attendance status of student: 1997
Table 178.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by level of enrollment, sex, attendance status, and type and control of institution: 1998
Table 179.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution, attendance status, and sex of student: 1970 to 1998
Table 180.Fall enrollment and number of degree-granting institutions, by affiliation of institution: 1980 to 1998
Table 181.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution, and attendance status, sex, and level of student: 1996 to 1998
Table 182.Total first-time freshmen enrolled in degree-granting institutions, by sex of student, attendance status, and type and control of institution: Fall 1955 to fall 1998
Table 183.Total first-time freshmen enrolled in degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex, control of institution, and state: Fall 1993 to fall 1998
Table 184.College enrollment rates of high school graduates, by race/ethnicity: 1960 to 1999
Table 185.College enrollment rates of high school graduates, by sex: 1960 to 1999
Table 186.Graduation, college preparation, and college application rates of high school students, by selected school characteristics: 1993-94
Table 187.Enrollment rates of 18- to 24-year-olds in degree-granting institutions, by race/ethnicity: 1967 to 1999
Table 188.Total undergraduate fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: 1970 to 1998
Table 189.Total graduate fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: 1970 to 1998
Table 190.Total first-professional fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: 1970 to 1998
Table 191.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by state: 1970 to 1998
Table 192.Total fall enrollment in public degree-granting institutions, by state: 1970 to 1998
Table 193.Total fall enrollment in private degree-granting institutions, by state: 1970 to 1998
Table 194.Total fall enrollment in all degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex, and state: 1997 and 1998
Table 195.Total fall enrollment in public degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex, and state: 1997 and 1998
Table 196.Total fall enrollment in private degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex, and state: 1997 and 1998
Table 197.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by control, type of institution, and state: 1997 and 1998
Table 198.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by level of enrollment and state: 1997 and 1998
Table 199.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by control, level of enrollment, and state: 1998
Table 200.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by control, level of enrollment, and state: 1997
Table 201.Full-time-equivalent fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by control and type of institution: 1969 to 1998
Table 202.Full-time-equivalent fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by control, type of institution, and state: 1996 to 1998
Table 203.Full-time-equivalent fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by control and state: 1980 to 1998
Table 204.Residence and migration of all freshmen students in degree-granting institutions, by state: Fall 1998
Table 205.Residence and migration of all freshmen students in degree-granting institutions graduating from high school in the past 12 months, by state: Fall 1998
Table 206.Residence and migration of all freshmen students in 4-year degree-granting institutions graduating from high school in the past 12 months, by state: Fall 1998
Table 207.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution and race/ethnicity of student: 1976 to 1997
Table 208.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by level of study, sex, and race/ethnicity of student: 1976 to 1997
Table 209.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by level, attendance status, sex, and race/ethnicity of student: 1996 and 1997
Table 210.Total number of institutions and fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by percentage minority enrollment: 1997
Table 211.Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions of higher education, by race/ethnicity of student and by state: 1992 to 1997
Table 212.Number and percent of students enrolled in postsecondary institutions, by disability status and selected student characteristics: 1995-96
Table 213.Enrollment of persons 14 to 34 years of age in 2- and 4-year colleges, by race/ethnicity, sex, and year of college: October 1965 to October 1999
Table 214.Enrollment in postsecondary education, by major field of study, age, and level of student: 1995-96
Table 215.Graduate enrollment in science and engineering programs in degree-granting institutions, by field of study: United States and outlying areas, fall 1985 to fall 1997
Table 216.Size of enrollment of degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution: Fall 1998
Table 217.Enrollment of the 120 largest degree-granting college and university campuses: Fall 1998
Table 218.Selected statistics for degree-granting institutions enrolling more than 14,600 students in 1998
Table 219.Enrollment and degrees conferred in women's colleges, by institution: Fall 1998 and 1997-98
Table 220.Enrollment and degrees conferred in Hispanic serving institutions, by institution: Fall 1997 and 1997-98
Table 221.Enrollment and degrees conferred in tribally controlled institutions, by institution: Fall 1997, 1998, and 1997-98
Table 222.Fall enrollment, degrees conferred, and expenditures in degree-granting historically black colleges and universities, by institution: 1998
Table 223.Selected statistics on degree-granting historically black colleges and universities: 1980, 1990, 1997, and 1998
Table 224.Fall enrollment in degree-granting historically black colleges and universities, by type and control of institution: 1976 to 1998

Staff
Table 225.Employees in degree-granting institutions of higher education, by primary occupation, employment status, and control of institution: Fall 1976, fall 1991, and fall 1997
Table 226.Employees in degree-granting institutions, by race/ethnicity, primary occupation, employment status sex, and type and control of institution: Fall 1997
Table 227.Employees in degree-granting institutions, by primary occupation, sex, employment status, and by type and control of institution: Fall 1997
Table 228.Staff and student/staff ratios in degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution and by state: Fall 1997

Faculty
Table 229.Full-time and part-time senior instructional faculty in degree-granting institutions, by employment status, control, and type of institution: Fall 1970 to fall 1997
Table 230.Full-time instructional faculty in degree-granting institutions, by race/ethnicity, academic rank, and sex: Fall 1997
Table 231.Full-time and part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by selected characteristics and type and control of institution: Fall 1992
Table 232.Full-time and part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by type and control, academic rank, age, salary, race/ethnicity, and sex: Fall 1992
Table 233.Full-time and part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by faculty characteristics and field: Fall 1992
Table 234.Full-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by instruction activities and type and control of institution: Fall 1992
Table 235.Part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by instruction activities and type and control of institution: Fall 1992
Table 236.Percentage distribution of full-time and part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by program area, race/ethnicity, and sex: Fall 1992
Table 237.Average base salaries of full-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution and by field of instruction: 1987-88 and 1992-93
Table 238.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in degree-granting institutions, by academic rank, sex, and control and type of institution: 1970-71 to 1998-99
Table 239.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in degree-granting institutions, by academic rank, sex, and by type and control of institution: 1980-81 to 1998-99
Table 240.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution and by state: 1998-99
Table 241.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution and by state: 1997-98
Table 242.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in 4-year degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution and rank of faculty and by state: 1998-99
Table 243.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in 4-year degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution and rank of faculty and by state: 1997-98
Table 244.Full-time instructional faculty with tenure for degree-granting institutions reporting tenure status, by academic rank, sex, and type and control of institution: 1980-81 to 1998-99

Institutions
Table 245.Degree-granting institutions, by control and type of institution: 1949-50 to 1998-99
Table 246.Degree-granting institutions and branches, by type, control of institution, and state: 1998-99
Table 247.Degree-granting institutions that have closed their doors, by control and type of institution: 1960-61 to 1998-99

Degrees
Table 248.Earned degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1869-70 to 2009-10
Table 249.Degrees awarded by degree-granting institutions, by control, level of degree, and state: 1997-98
Table 250.Earned degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and by state: 1996-97 and 1997-98
Table 251.Associate degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by sex of student and field of study: 1991-92 to 1995-96
Table 252.Associate degrees and other subbaccalaureate awards conferred by degree-granting institutions, by length of curriculum, sex of student, and field of study: 1997-98
Table 253.Associate degrees and other subbaccalaureate awards conferred by degree-granting institutions, by length of curriculum, sex of student, and field of study: 1996-97
Table 254.Bachelor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by discipline division: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 255.Master's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by discipline division: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 256.Doctor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by discipline division: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 257.Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by sex of student and field of study: 1997-98
Table 258.Degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by control of institution: 1969-70 to 1997-98
Table 259.Degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by control of institution, level of degree, and discipline division: 1997-98
Table 260.Number of degree-granting institutions conferring degrees, by level of degree and discipline division: 1997-98
Table 261.First-professional degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions in dentistry, medicine, and law, by sex, and number of institutions conferring degrees: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 262.First-professional degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by sex of student, control of institution, and field of study: 1985-86 to 1997-98
Table 263.Associate degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student:1976-77 to 1997-98
Table 264.Associate degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1997-98
Table 265.Bachelor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student:1976-77 to 1997-98
Table 266.Bachelor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1997-98
Table 267.Bachelor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1996-97
Table 268.Master's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student:1976-77 to 1997-98
Table 269.Master's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1997-98
Table 270.Master's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1996-97
Table 271.Doctor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student:1976-77 to 1997-98
Table 272.Doctor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1997-98
Table 273.Doctor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1996-97
Table 274.First-professional degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student: 1976-77 to 1997-98
Table 275.First-professional degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1997-98
Table 276.First-professional degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1996-97
Table 277.Earned degrees in agriculture and natural resources conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 278.Earned degrees in architecture and related programs conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 279.Earned degrees in the biological/life sciences conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1951-52 to 1997-98
Table 280.Earned degrees in biology, microbiology, and zoology conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 281.Earned degrees in business conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1955-56 to 1997-98
Table 282.Earned degrees in communications conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 283.Earned degrees in computer and information sciences conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 284.Earned degrees in education conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 285.Earned degrees in engineering conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 286.Earned degrees in chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 287.Earned degrees in English language and literature/letters conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 288.Earned degrees in modern foreign languages and literatures conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 289.Earned degrees in French, German, and Spanish conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 290.Earned degrees in the health professions and related sciences conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 291.Earned degrees in mathematics conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 292.Earned degrees in the physical sciences conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1959-60 to 1997-98
Table 293.Earned degrees in chemistry, geology, and physics conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 294.Earned degrees in psychology conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and by sex of student: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 295.Earned degrees in public administration and services conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 296.Earned degrees in the social sciences and history conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 297.Earned degrees in economics, history, political science and government, and sociology conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree: 1949-50 to 1997-98
Table 298.Earned degrees in visual and performing arts conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1997-98
Table 299.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees, by field of study: 1996-97
Table 300.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in education: 1979-80 to 1996-97
Table 301.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in engineering: 1979-80 to 1996-97
Table 302.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in the humanities: 1979-80 to 1996-97
Table 303.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in the life sciences: 1979-80 to 1996-97
Table 304.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in the physical sciences: 1979-80 to 1996-97
Table 305.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in the social sciences: 1979-80 to 1996-97
Table 306.Doctor's degrees conferred by 60 large degree-granting institutions: 1988-89 to 1997-98

Outcomes
Table 307.Percentage distribution of 1980 high school sophomores, by highest level of education completed through 1992, by selected student characteristics: 1980 to 1992
Table 308.Mean number of semester credits completed by bachelor's degree recipients, by major and course area: 1976, 1984, and 1992-93
Table 309.Percent of colleges and universities using various selection criteria for admission, by type and control of institution: 1990-91 to 1999-2000
Table 310.Percent of degree-granting institutions offering remedial services, by type and control of institution: 1987-88 to 1999-2000
Table 311.Percentage distribution of enrollment and completion status of first-time postsecondary students starting during the 1989-90 academic year, by type of institution and other student characteristics: 1994
Table 312.Scores on Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and subject matter tests: 1965 to 1998

Student Charges and Student Financial Assistance
Table 313.Average undergraduate tuition and fees and room and board rates paid by full-time-equivalent students in degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution: 1964-65 to 1999-2000
Table 314.Average undergraduate tuition and fees and room and board rates paid by full-time-equivalent students in degree-granting institutions, by control of institution and by state: 1998-99 and 1999-2000
Table 315.Average undergraduate tuition and fees and room and board rates in degree-granting institutions, by percentile distribution of students, type and control of institution: 1998-99 and 1999-2000
Table 316.Average graduate and first-professional tuition and required fees in degree-granting institutions, by control of institution: 1987-88 to 1999-2000
Table 317.Percent of undergraduates receiving aid, by type and source of aid and selected student characteristics: 1995-96
Table 318.Average amount of financial aid awarded in 1995-96 per student, by type and source of aid and selected student characteristics
Table 319.Undergraduates enrolled full-time and part-time, by aid status and source of aid during 1995-96, and control and level of institution
Table 320.Percent of undergraduates receiving aid, by type and source of aid received, and by control and level of institution: 1992-93 and 1995-96
Table 321.Undergraduates enrolled full-time and part-time, by federal aid program and by control and level of institution: 1995-96
Table 322.Postbaccalaureate students enrolled full-time and part-time, by aid status, source of aid, and by level of study and control and level of institution: 1992-93 and 1995-96
Table 323.Postbaccalaureate students enrolled full-time and part-time, by type of aid and by level of study, control, and level of institution: 1992-93 and 1995-96
Table 324.Scholarship and fellowship awards of degree-granting institutions, by control of institution: 1959-60 to 1996-97
Table 325.Pell Grant revenue of degree-granting institutions compared to current-fund revenue and tuition, by type and control of institution: 1985-86 to 1996-97
Table 326.State awards for need-based undergraduate scholarship and grant programs, by state: 1987-88 to 1997-98

Income
Table 327.Current-fund revenue of degree-granting institutions, by source: 1980-81 to 1995-96
Table 328.Current-fund revenue of public degree-granting institutions, by source: 1980-81 to 1996-97
Table 329.Current-fund revenue of private degree-granting institutions, by source: 1980-81 to 1995-96
Table 330.Current-fund revenue of private not-for-profit degree-granting institutions, by source: 1980-81 to 1995-96
Table 331.Current-fund revenue of degree-granting institutions, by source of funds: 1919-20 to 1995-96
Table 332.Current-fund revenue of public degree-granting institutions, by source of funds, and by type of institution: 1996-97
Table 333.Total revenue of private not-for-profit degree-granting institutions, by source of funds and type of institution: 1996-97
Table 334.Current-fund revenue of public degree-granting institutions, by state, 1980-81 to 1996-97
Table 335.Current-fund revenue of public degree-granting institutions, by source of funds and state: 1996-97
Table 336.Appropriations from state and local governments for public degree-granting institutions, by state: 1986-87 to 1996-97
Table 337.Current-fund revenue received from the federal government by the 120 degree-granting institutions receiving the largest amounts: 1995-96

Expenditures
Table 338.Current-fund expenditures and expenditures per full-time-equivalent student in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution: 1970-71 to 1995-96
Table 339.Current-fund expenditures and educational and general expenditures of degree-granting institutions, by purpose and per student: 1929-30 to 1995-96
Table 340.Expenditures of public degree-granting institutions, by purpose and type of institution: 1996-97
Table 341.Total expenditures of private not-for-profit degree-granting institutions, by purpose and type of institution: 1996-97
Table 342.Current-fund expenditures of degree-granting institutions, by purpose: 1980-81 to 1995-96
Table 343.Current-fund expenditures of public degree-granting institutions, by purpose: 1980-81 to 1996-97
Table 344.Current-fund expenditures of private institutions of higher education, by purpose: 1980-81 to 1995-96
Table 345.Voluntary support for degree-granting institutions, by source and purpose of support: 1959-60 to 1997-98
Table 346.Educational and general expenditures of degree-granting public universities, by purpose: 1976-77 to 1996-97
Table 347.Educational and general expenditures of public degree-granting 4-year colleges, by purpose: 1976-77 to 1996-97
Table 348.Educational and general expenditures of degree-granting public 2-year colleges, by purpose: 1976-77 to 1996-97
Table 349.Current-fund expenditures of public degree-granting institutions, by state: 1980-81 to 1996-97
Table 350.Educational and general expenditures of public degree-granting institutions, by state: 1980-81 to 1996-97
Table 351.Current-fund expenditures and educational and general expenditures of private not-for-profit institutions of higher education, by state: 1985-86 to 1995-96

Property
Table 352.Additions to physical plant value of degree-granting institutions, by type of addition and control of institution: 1969-70 to 1996-97
Table 353.Value of property and liabilities of degree-granting institutions: 1899-1900 to 1995-96
Table 354.Endowment funds of the 120 degree-granting institutions with the largest amounts: Fiscal year 1996

Adult and Vocational Education
Adult Education
Table 355.Participation of employed persons, 17 years old and over, in adult education during the previous 12 months, by selected characteristics of participants: 1995 and 1999
Table 356.Participation in adult education during the previous 12 months by adults 17 years old and older, by selected characteristics of participants: 1991, 1995, and 1999
Table 357.Participants in adult basic and secondary education programs, by level of enrollment and state: Fiscal years 1980, 1990, and 1998

Vocational Education
Table 358.Non-degree granting institutions offering postsecondary education, by control and state: 1997-98 and 1998-99
 Chapter 4.  Federal Programs for Education and Related Activities
Table 359.Federal education support and estimated federal tax expenditures for education, by category: Fiscal years 1965 to 2000
Table 360.Federal on-budget funds for education and related programs, in current dollars, by agency: Fiscal years 1965 to 1999
Table 361.Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or other educational purpose, by agency and program: Fiscal years 1965 to 2000
Table 362.Estimated federal support for education, by agency and type of ultimate recipient: Fiscal year 2000
Table 363.Federal on-budget funds obligated for programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education: Fiscal years 1980 to 2000
Table 364.U.S. Department of Education outlays, by level of education and type of recipient: Fiscal years 1980 to 2000
Table 365.U.S. Department of Education appropriations for major programs, by state or other area: Fiscal year 1999
Table 366.Appropriations for Title I and Title VI, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1994, by state or other area and type of appropriation: 1998-99 and 1999-2000
Table 367.Federal obligations for research and development and R&D plant, by state and selected agency: Fiscal year 1998
Table 368.Federal science and engineering obligations to colleges and universities, by agency and state: Fiscal year 1998
Table 369.Summary of federal funds for research, development, and R & D plant: Fiscal years 1992 to 2000
Table 370.U.S. Department of Agriculture obligations for child nutrition programs, by state or other 1998 and 1999
Table 371.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services allocations for Head Start and enrollment in Head Start, by state or other area: Fiscal years 1996 to 1999 (In thousands of current dollars)
Table 372.Public school students receiving federally funded free or reduced price lunches, by selected school characteristics: School year 1993-94
Table 373.Public and private school students receiving federally funded Chapter 1 services, by selected school characteristics: School year 1993-94
 Chapter 5.  Outcomes of Education
Educational Characteristics of the Workforce
Table 374.Percent of 18- to 25-year-olds reporting drug use during the past 30 days and the past year: 1982 to 1998
Table 375.Percent of 1972, 1982, and 1992 high school seniors who felt that certain life values were "very important," by sex: 1972 to 1994
Table 376.Labor force participation of persons 16 years old and over, by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and highest level of education: 1999
Table 377.Occupation of employed persons 25 to 64 years old, by educational attainment and sex: 1999
Table 378.Unemployment rate of persons 16 years old and over, by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and highest degree attained: 1997, 1998, and 1999
Table 379.Median annual income of year-round full-time workers 25 years old and over, by level of education completed and sex: 1989 to 1998
Table 380.Total annual money income and median income of persons 25 years old and over, by educational attainment and sex: 1998
Table 381.College enrollment and labor force status of 1998 and 1999 high school graduates, by sex and race/ethnicity: October 1998 and October 1999

Recent High School and College Graduates
Table 382.Labor force status of 1979-80 to 1998-99 high school dropouts, by sex and race/ethnicity: October 1980 to October 1999
Table 383.Employment of 12th graders, by selected student characteristics: 1992
Table 384.Full-time employment status of bachelor's degree recipients 1 year after graduation, by field of study: 1976 to 1991
Table 385.Employment status of 1992-93 bachelor's degree recipients 1 year after graduation, by field of study and occupational area: 1994
Table 386.Percentage of 1992-93 bachelor's degree recipients pursuing further education within one year after graduation, by type of enrollment and undergraduate major: April 1994
Table 387.Average annual salary of bachelor's degree recipients employed full-time 1 year after graduation, by field of study: 1976 to 1994
Table 388.Participation of young adults in voluntary or community service activities, by selected characteristics: 1992 to 1994
Table 389.Literacy skills of adults, 16 years old and over, by selected characteristics: 1992
 Chapter 6.  International Comparisons of Education
Table 390.School-age populations as a percent of total population: Selected countries, 1985, 1990, 1995, 1996, and 1998
Table 391.Percent of population enrolled in secondary and postsecondary institutions, by age group: Selected countries, 1985, 1990, and 1998
Table 392.Estimated population, school enrollment, and teachers in major areas of the world: 1980, 1990, 1995, 1996, and 1997
Table 393.Selected statistics for countries with populations over 10 million, by continent: 1980, 1990, and 1997
Table 394.Pupils per teacher in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by level of education: Selected countries, 1985 to 1998
Table 395.Geography proficiency of 13-year-olds in educational systems participating in the International Assessment of Educational Progress: 1991
Table 396.Average eighth grade mathematics scores by content areas, and average time spent studying out of school, by country: 1994-95
Table 397.Instructional practices and time spent teaching mathematics in eighth grade, by country: 1994-95
Table 398.Average eighth grade science scores by content areas, and average time spent studying out of school, by country: 1994-95
Table 399.Instructional practices and time spent teaching science in eighth grade, by country: 1994-95
Table 400.Average size of eighth grade mathematics classes, and frequency teachers assign mathematics homework, by country: 1994-95
Table 401.Eighth grade students' perceptions about mathematics achievement and hours spent on leisure activities, by country: 1994-95
Table 402.Average fourth grade mathematics scores, by content areas, and average time spent studying mathematics out of school, by country: 1994-95
Table 403.Average fourth grade science scores, by content areas, and average time spent teaching science in school, by country: 1994-95
Table 404.Average mathematics scores at the end of secondary school, by sex, and average time spent studying mathematics out of school, by country: 1994-95
Table 405.Average science scores, at the end of secondary school, by sex, and average time spent studying science out of school, by country:1994-95
Table 406.Reading literacy test scores of 9-year-olds: Selected countries, 1992
Table 407.Reading literacy test scores of 14-year-olds: Selected countries, 1992
Table 408.Number of bachelor's degree recipients per 100 persons of the theoretical age of graduation, by sex: Selected countries, 1989 to 1996
Table 409.Percent of bachelor's degrees awarded in science: Selected countries, 1985, 1990, and 1994 to 1996
Table 410.Percent of graduate degrees awarded in science: Selected countries, 1985, 1990, 1991, and 1996
Table 411.Public education expenditures per student, by level of student: Selected countries, 1985 to 1997
Table 412.Total public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of the gross domestic product: Selected countries, 1985 to 1997
Table 413.Foreign students enrolled in institutions of higher education in the United States and outlying areas, by continent, region, and selected countries of origin: 1980-81 to 1998-99
 Chapter 7.  Learning Resources and Technology
Libraries
Table 414.Percentage of school library/media centers that offered selected services and equipment, and library/media center expenditures, by control and level of school: 1993-94
Table 415.Selected statistics on public school library/media centers, by level and enrollment size of school: 1993-94
Table 416.Selected statistics on public school library/media centers, by state: 1993-94
Table 417.Percent of public and private schools having access to selected telecommunication capabilities, by location of access site and control of school: 1995
Table 418.Percent of public schools and school classrooms having access to the Internet, by school characteristics: 1994 to 1999
Table 419.General statistics of college and university libraries: 1975-76 to 1996-97
Table 420.Selected statistics on the collections, staff, and operating expenditures of 60 large college and university libraries: 1996
Table 421.General statistics of public libraries, by population of legal service area: 1997
Table 422.Public libraries, books and serial volumes, library visits, and reference transactions, by state: Fiscal year 1997

Computers and Technology
Table 423.Percent of workers, 18 years old and over, using computers on the job, by selected characteristics and computer activities: October 1993 and October 1997
Table 424.Access to home computers, by selected characteristics of students and other users: October 1997
Table 425.Percent of home computer users using specific applications, by selected characteristics: October 1997
Table 426.Percent of student home computer users using specific applications, by selected characteristics: October 1997
Table 427.Student use of computers, by level of instruction and selected characteristics: 1984 to 1997

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