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Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012
NCES 2013-036


Addington, L. (2005). Disentangling the Effects of Bounding and Mobility on Reports of Criminal Victimization. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 21(3): 321–343.

Anderson, M., Kaufman, J., Simon, T., Barrios, L., Paulozzi, L., Ryan, G., Hammond, R., Modzeleski, W., Feucht, T., Potter, L., and the School-Associated Violent Deaths Study Group. (2001). School-Associated Violent Deaths in the United States, 1994–1999. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286: 2695–2702.

Aspy, C.B., Oman, R.F., Vesely, S.K., McLeroy, K., Rodine, S., and Marshall, L. (2004). Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82: 269–277.

Beauvais, F., Chavez, E., Oetting, E., Deffenbacher, J., and Cornell, G. (1996). Drug Use, Violence, and Victimization Among White American, Mexican American, and American Indian Dropouts, Students With Academic Problems, and Students in Good Academic Standing. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43: 292–299.

Brener, N.D., Kann, L., and McManus, T. (2003). A Comparison of Two Survey Questions on Race and Ethnicity Among High School Students. Public Opinion Quarterly, 67: 227–236.

Cantor, D., and Lynch, J.P. (2000). Self-Report Surveys as Measures of Crime and Criminal Victimization. In D. Duffee (Ed.), Measurement and Analysis of Crime and Justice (pp. 85–138). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Temporal Variations in School-Associated Student Homicide and Suicide Events—United States, 1992–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(31): 657–660.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). School-Associated Student Homicides—United States, 1992–2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008, 57(02): 33–36. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2011. Surveillance Summaries. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2012, 61(4).

Coopersmith, J. (2009). Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staffing Survey (NCES 2009-324). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Crews, K., Crews, J., and Turner, F. (2008). School Violence Is Not Going Away So Proactive Steps Are Needed. College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal, 4(1): 25–28.

Crick, N.R., and Bigbee, M.A. (1998). Relational and Overt Forms of Peer Victimization: A Multi- Informant Approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 337–347.

Crick, N.R., and Grotpeter, J.K. (1996). Children's Treatment by Peers: Victims of Relational and Overt Aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 8: 367–380.

DeVoe, J.F., and Bauer, L. (2011). Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results From the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCES 2012-314). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Eaton, D., Brener, D., Kann, L., and Pittman, V. (2007). High School Student Responses to Different Question Formats Assessing Race/ Ethnicity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41: 488–494.

Fredland, N.M. (2008). Nurturing Hostile Environments: The Problem of School Violence. Family & Community Health, 31(1): S32–S41.

Henry, S. (2000). What Is School Violence? An Integrated Definition. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 567: 16–29.

Kachur, S.P., Stennies, G.M., Powell, K.E., Modzeleski, W., Stephens, R., Murphy, R., Kresnow, M., Sleet, D., and Lowry, R. (1996). School-Associated Violent Deaths in the United States, 1992 to 1994. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275: 1729–1733.

Karcher, M. (2002). The Cycle of Violence and Disconnection Among Rural Middle School Students: Teacher Disconnection as a Consequence of Violence. Journal of School Violence, 1: 35–51.

Kauffman, J., Modzeleski, W., Feucht, T., Simon, T.R., Anderson, M., Shaw, K., Arias, I., and Barrios, L. (2004). School-Associated Suicides— United States, 1994–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(22): 476–478.

Kodjo, C.M., Auinger, P., and Ryan, S.A. (2003). Demographic, Intrinsic, and Extrinsic Factors Associated With Weapon Carrying at School. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157(1): 96–103.

Lannie, A.L., and McCurdy, B.L. (2007). Preventing Disruptive Behavior in the Urban Classroom: Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Student and Teacher Behavior. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(1): 85–98.

MacMillan, R., and Hagan, J. (2004). Violence in the Transition to Adulthood: Adolescent Victimization, Education, and Socioeconomic Attainment in Later Life. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1(2): 127–158.

Nansel, T.R., Overpeck, M.D., Haynie, D.L., Ruan, W.J., and Scheidt, P.C. (2003). Relationships Between Bullying and Violence Among U.S. Youth. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157(4): 348–353.

Nansel, T.R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R., Ruan, W., Simons-Morton, B., and Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. Youth: Prevalence and Association With Psychosocial Adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285: 2094–2100.

Neiman, S. (2011). Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: Findings From the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2009–10 (NCES 2011-320). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Payne, A.A., Gottfredson, D.C., and Gottfredson, G.D. (2003). Schools as Communities: The Relationship Between Communal School Organization, Student Bonding, and School Disorder. Criminology, 41: 749–778.

Prinstein, M.J., Boergers, J., and Vernberg, E.M. (2001). Overt and Relational Aggression in Adolescents: Social-Psychological Adjustment of Aggressors and Victims. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30: 479–491.

Reza, A., Modzeleski, W., Feucht, T., Anderson, M., Simon, T.R., and Barrios, L. (2003). Source of Firearms Used by Students in School-Associated Violent Deaths—United States, 1992–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52(9): 169–172.

Ringwalt, C.L., Ennett, S., and Johnson, R. (2003). Factors Associated With Fidelity to Substance Use Prevention Curriculum Guides in the Nation's Middle Schools. Health Education & Behavior, 30: 375–391.

Scheckner, S., Rollins, S.A., Kaiser-Ulrey, C., and Wagner, R. (2002). School Violence in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness. Journal of School Violence, 1: 5–34.

Schreck, C.J., and Miller, J.M. (2003). Sources of Fear of Crime at School: What Is the Relative Contribution of Disorder, Individual Characteristics, and School Security? Journal of School Violence, 2(4): 57–79.

Smith, D.L., and Smith, B.J. (2006). Perceptions of Violence: The Views of Teachers Who Left Urban Schools. The High School Journal, 89(3): 34–42.

Smith, T.G., Dorn, R.I., Kanikeberg, K., Burke, A., and Mueller, M. (2011). Gangs in Schools Task Force: Report to the Legislature. Washington State School Safety Center, Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Olympia, WA.

Snyder, T.D., and Dillow, S.A. (2012). Digest of Education Statistics 2011 (NCES 2012-001). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Storch, E.A., Nock, M.K., Masia-Warner, C., and Barlas, M.E. (2003). Peer Victimization and Social-Psychological Adjustment in Hispanic and African-American Children. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 12: 439–455.

Swearer, S.M., Espelage, D.L., Vaillancourt, T., and Hymel, S. (2010). What Can Be Done About School Bullying? Linking Research to Educational Practice. Educational Researcher, 39 (1); 38–47.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2003). NCES Statistical Standards (NCES 2003-601). Washington, DC.

Wei, H., and Williams, J.H. (2004). Relationship Between Peer Victimization and School Adjustment in Sixth-Grade Students: Investigating Mediation Effects. Violence and Victims, 19: 557–571.

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