|Reading skill and number of family risk factors||Spring
|Spring 1st||Spring 3rd|
|Two or more||0.14||0.68||2.32|
|Two or more||0.02||0.35||1.56|
|Interpreting beyond text|
|Two or more||0.01||0.18||1.09|
|SOURCE: Rathburn, A., and West, J. (2004). From Kindergarten Through Third Grade: Children’s Beginning School Experiences (NCES 2004–007), table A-9a and previously unpublished tabulation (November 2004). Data from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998 (ECLS–K), Longitudinal Kindergarten-First Grade Public-Use Data File and Third Grade Restricted-Use Data File.