In academic year 2009–10, total revenues per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student were 1 percent less than in 2004–05 in public postsecondary degree-granting institutions (in constant 2010–11 dollars). Total revenues per student went from $28,966 in 2004–05 to $28,781 in 2009–10.
In academic year 2009–10, total revenue was $309 billion (in constant 2010–11 dollars) at public postsecondary degree-granting institutions, $172 billion at private nonprofit institutions, and $25 billion at private for-profit institutions (see table A-42-1). The category of student tuition and fees typically accounts for a large percentage of total revenue and was the largest revenue source at both private nonprofit and for-profit institutions in 2009–10 (33 and 91 percent, respectively). At public institutions, the percentage of revenue from tuition and fees (18 percent) was the second largest to that from state appropriations (21 percent). Revenue from tuition and fees made up over half of all revenue for all private for-profit institutions and 2-year nonprofit institutions (see table A-42-2).
In 2009–10, total revenues per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student in public institutions were 1 percent less than in 2004–05 in public postsecondary institutions (see table A-42-1). Total revenues per student went from $28,966 in 2004–05 to $28,781 in 2009–10 (see table A-42-1). Total revenues were 14 percent higher in 2004–05 than in 2009–10 for public institutions, but FTE enrollment was 15 percent higher (9,348,081 in 2004–05 and 10,750,132 in 2009–10). Tuition and fees per student were 12 percent higher in 2009–10 than in 2004–05, and nonoperating revenue from government grants per student were 373 percent higher in 2009–10 than in 2004–05 (See table A-42-1). These increases were not enough to offset the drop in revenue per student from most other revenue sources.
In 2-year public postsecondary institutions, total revenue per student in 2009–10 was higher in constant 2010–11 dollars than in 2004–05 (from $12,765 to $13,107), but total revenue per student was less in 2009–10 than in 2004–05 in all other 2-year institutions and in all 4-year institutions (see table A-42-2). Revenue per student from tuition and fees was nearly 15 percent higher for 4-year public institutions in 2009–10 than in 2004–05 and 9 percent higher in 4-year private nonprofit institutions in 2009–10 than in 2004–05. Tuition and fees per student increased by a small percentage in private 2-year institutions and 4-year for-profit institutions.
In 4-year private nonprofit institutions, decreases per student in 2009–10 compared to 2004–05 in investment returns and private gifts grants and contracts were larger than other revenue sources and resulted in a net loss in total revenue per student (from $56,746 in 2004–05 compared to $54,703 in 2009–10). In 4-year private for-profit institutions, decreases per student in 2009–10 compared to 2004–05 in other revenue (from $135 to -$375) and auxiliary enterprises (from $420 to $307) were the major factors leading to a drop in total revenue per student (from $16,019 to $15,679). In public 2-year institutions, declines in per-student operating revenue from government grants and contracts and nonoperating government appropriations were offset by increases in nonoperating revenue government grants.
Investment returns or investment income accounted for less than 5 percent of overall revenues for all postsecondary sectors except for nonprofit 4-year private schools. Investment returns or investment income fell for all postsecondary sectors between 2004–05 and 2009–10, except for-profit 4-year schools (where investment returns made up 0.2 percent or less of total revenues). The biggest decline in investment returns was seen for nonprofit 4-year schools, where investment returns fell by $6 billion between these two time points.
Auxiliary enterprises are essentially self-supporting operations, such as residence halls, that exist to provide a service to students, faculty, or staff and that charge a fee that is directly related to, although not necessarily equal to, the cost of the service. Operating revenue is revenue from providing specific goods and services. Nonoperating revenue is revenue that is not in exchange for providing specific goods and services. Government grants can be operating revenue or nonoperating revenue. Full-time equivalent students include the count of full-time students plus the full-time equivalent of part-time students. Public institutions use Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) accounting standards, and private institutions use Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) accounting standards. Data are adjusted by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to constant 2010–11 dollars. For more information on the CPI, see Appendix C – Finance. For more information on the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) and IPEDS classification of institutions, see Appendix B – Guide to Sources.
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