|Figure 16-1: Average science scale scores of 4th-grade students, by country: 2007|
1 Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China.
2 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
3 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included.
4 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of National Target Population.
5 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included.
6 Kuwait tested the same cohort of students as other countries, but later in 2007, at the beginning of the next school year.
NOTE: Countries are ordered by 2007 average score. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) scale average was established to have a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100, based on the average of all the countries that participated in 1995. Successive TIMSS assessments have scaled achievement data so that scores are equivalent from assessment to assessment. That is, a score of 500 in grade 4 science in 2007 is equivalent to a score of 500 in grade 4 science in 2003 and 1995. For more information on TIMSS, see supplemental note 5.
SOURCE: Gonzales, P., Williams, T., Jocelyn, L., Roey, S., Kastberg, D., and Brenwald, S. (2008). Highlights From TIMSS 2007: Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context (NCES 2009-001), table 11, data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007.