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Table A-4. Average TIMSS mathematics scores of eighth-grade students on combined mathematics scale, by jurisdiction: 1995, 1999, 2003, and 2007
  1995   1999   2003   2007
Jurisdiction Average score   s.e.   Average score   s.e.   Average score   s.e.   Average score   s.e.
TIMSS scale average   500   0.0     500   0.0     500   0.0   500   0.0
 
Algeria                   387   2.1
Argentina   (1)                    
Armenia             478   3.0   499   3.5
Australia 509   3.7   525 3 4.8     505   4.6   496   3.9
Austria 529 4 3.1                  
Bahrain             401   1.7   398   1.6
Belgium (Flemish) 550 5 5.9   558 5 3.3   537   2.8      
Belgium (French) 518 4 3.8                  
Bosnia and Herzegovina                   456   2.7
Botswana             366   2.6   364   2.3
Bulgaria 527 6 5.8     511   5.9   476   4.3   464   5.0
Canada 521   2.2   531   2.5            
Chile       392   4.4   387   3.3      
Chinese Taipei       585   4.0   585   4.6   598   4.5
Colombia 332   5.6               380   3.6
Cyprus 468   2.2   476   1.8   459   1.7   465   1.6
Czech Republic 546   4.5   520   4.2           504   2.4
Denmark   (7)   3.1                  
Egypt             406   3.5   391   3.6
El Salvador                   340   2.8
England   498 5,8 3.0     496 4 4.2     (9)       513 5 4.8
Estonia             531   3.0      
Finland       520   2.7            
France 530   2.8                  
Georgia                   410 10 6.0
Germany   502 4,5,10 4.5                  
Ghana             276   4.7   309   4.4
Greece   (7)   3.4                  
Hong Kong SAR11 569   6.1   582 5 4.3   586 5 3.3   572 5 5.8
Hungary 527   3.2   532   3.7   529 12 3.2     517   3.5
Iceland   484   4.9                  
Indonesia   (1)     403   4.9   411 10 4.8   397   3.8
Iran, Islamic Republic of 418   3.9   422   3.4   411 12 2.4   403   4.1
Ireland 519   4.8                  
Israel   (13)     466 8 3.9     496 8 3.4   463 8 3.9
Italy   (1)     479 12 3.8   484   3.2   480   3.0
Japan 581   1.6   579   1.7   570   2.1   570   2.4
Jordan       428   3.6   424   4.1   427   4.1
Korea, Republic of 581   2.0   587   2.0   589 14 2.2   597   2.7
Kuwait   (13)                 354 14 2.3
Latvia (LSS)15   488 10 3.6     505 10 3.4     505   3.8      
Lebanon             433   3.1   449   4.0
Lithuania 472 10,12 4.1   482 10,14 4.3     502 10 2.5     506 10 2.3
Macedonia, Republic of       447   4.2   435 8 3.5      
Malaysia       519   4.4     508   4.1   474   5.0
Malta                   488   1.2
Mexico   (16)                    
Moldova, Republic of       469   3.9   460   4.0      
Morocco       337   2.6   387 2,10,17 2.5     (18)  
Netherlands 529 4 6.1   540 5 7.1   536 5 3.8      
New Zealand   501   4.7     491   5.2     494   5.3      
Norway   498   2.2         461   2.5   469   2.0
Oman                   372   3.4
Palestinian National Authority             390   3.1   367   3.5
Philippines   (19)     345   6.0   378   5.2      
Portugal 451   3.0                  
Qatar                   307   1.4
Romania 474   4.6   472   5.8   475   4.8   461   4.1
Russian Federation 524 12 5.3   526   5.9     508   3.7     512   4.1
Saudi Arabia             332   4.6   329 17 2.9
Scotland   493 2 5.7           498 5 3.7   487 5 3.7
Serbia             477 10 2.6   486 10,12 3.3
Singapore 609   4.0   604   6.3   605   3.6   593   3.8
Slovak Republic 534   3.1   534   4.0     508   3.3      
Slovenia   494 4 2.9     530 3 2.8   493   2.2   501   2.1
South Africa   (13)     275   6.8   264   5.5      
Spain   483   2.3                  
Sweden 540   4.3           499   2.6   491   2.3
Switzerland 534 10 2.7                  
Syrian Arab Republic                   395   3.8
Thailand   (7)     467   5.1         441   5.0
Tunisia       448   2.4   410   2.2   420   2.4
Turkey       429   4.3         432 17 4.8
Ukraine                   462   3.6
United States   492 5 4.7     502   4.0     504 2 3.3     508 5,12 2.8
∆ Score is higher than U.S. score.
▼ Score is lower than U.S. score.
— Not available. (Data were not collected or not reported.)
† Not applicable.
1Argentina, Italy, and Indonesia were unable to complete the steps necessary for their data to appear in TIMSS 1995 report.
2Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included.
3Because of national-level changes in the starting age/date for school, data cannot be compared with other years.
4Sampling issues identified by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). See TIMSS 1995 report for details.
5Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included.
6Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
7Data not shown because of unapproved sampling procedures at classroom level.
8National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
9England collected data in 2003, but due to problems with meeting the minimum sampling requirements its eighth-grade data are not reported.
10National Target Population did not include all of the International Target Population defined by TIMSS.
11Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China.
12National Defined Population covers 90 percent to 95 percent of National Target Population.
13Data not shown because of unapproved sampling procedures at classroom level and failure to meet other guidelines.
14The same cohort of students was tested as other countries, but later in the same year, at the beginning of the next school year.
15Only Latvian-speaking schools (LSS) are included.
16Mexico participated in the testing portion of TIMSS, but chose not to release its results at grades 7 and 8 in the international report.
17Data not comparable with previous cycles.
18Morocco failed to meet the required school participation rates in 2007 because of a procedural difficulty with some schools.
19Data for the Philippines are not shown because characteristics of its school sample are not completely known.
NOTE: Jurisdictions are ordered alphabetically. Combined mathematics literacy scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000. The TIMSS 1995 average scores were rescaled to allow for trend analysis. For more details, see appendix A. The tests for significance take into account the standard error for the reported difference. Thus, a small difference between the United States and one country may be significant while a large difference between the United States and another country may not be significant. Standard error is noted by s.e.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 1995,1999, 2003, and 2007.
                                       
For more information: Gonzales, P., Williams, T., Jocelyn, L., Roey, S., Kastberg, D., and Brenwald, S. (2008). Highlights from TIMSS 2007 Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Fourth- and Eighth-Grade in an International Context, table 3, table 4, table C2. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC; Gonzales, P., Guzman, J.C., Partelow, L., Pahlke, E., Jocelyn, L., Kastberg, L., and Williams, T. (2003). Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003, table 3 and table C2. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC; Gonzales, P., Calsyn, C., Jocelyn, L., Mak, K., Kastberg, D., Arafeh, S., Williams, T., and Tsen, W. (2000). Pursuing Excellence: Comparisons of International Eighth-Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement from a U.S. Perspective 1995 and 1999 figure 2 and table A3.1. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC; and previously unpublished 1995 data tabulations.
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