1 Number of participating countries based on the most recently completed year of the assessment.
2 Average gross domestic product (GDP) per capita is based on the averages of the participating countries in 2003 that completed all necessary steps to appear in the international reports. GDP per capita is taken from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Human Development Report 2005. Figures are converted using purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors that take into account differences in the relative prices of goods and services—particularly non-tradables—and therefore provide a better overall measure of the real value of output produced by an economy compared to other economies. PPP GDP is measured in current international dollars which, in principle, have the same purchasing power as a dollar spent on gross national index in the U.S. economy. Average GDP per capita for PISA includes Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)-member nations only. Average GDP per capita for TIMSS, PIRLS, and ALL includes all nations for which data were available. GDP per capita data were unavailable for Bermuda, Chinese Taipei, Lichtenstein, Macao-China, Palestinian National Authority, and Serbia and are thus not included in the averages.
3 Average Human Development Index (HDI) is based on the HDI of particpating countries in 2003 and includes only those countries that completed all necessary steps to appear in the international reports. The HDI is a composite index that takes into account three dimensions of human development: life expectancy; knowledge; and standard of living. HDI figures are taken from the UNDP Human Development Report 2005. HDI scores range from 0 (lowest) to 1 (highest). Average HDI for PISA includes OECD-member nations only. Average HDI for TIMSS, PIRLS, and ALL includes all nations for which data were available. HDI figures were unavailable for Bermuda, Chinese Taipei, Lichtenstein, Macao-China, and Serbia and are thus not included in the averages.
4Fourth-graders were only assessed in 1995 and 2003.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2001; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2003; Statistics Canada and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL), 2003; OECD, Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2003; and United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Human Development Report 2005, previously unpublished tabulation (October 2005).