Persistence and Attainment After 5 Years
Horn (1996) investigated the relationships between the various nontraditional characteristics and persistence and attainment, taking into account the effect of other variables also likely to affect persistence, including sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and the control and level of institution. This analysis showed that, controlling for the covariation of these other factors, the following nontraditional characteristics remained negatively associated with persistence: delaying enrollment, enrolling part time, being financially independent, and having a GED or other certificate of completion.
The remaining three nontraditional characteristics—working full time in the first year of enrollment, having dependents, and being a single parent—did not have an independent association with persistence. Further analysis demonstrated, however, that working full time and having dependents predicted part-time and delayed enrollment and therefore indirectly affected persistence. Only single parenthood did not have a measurable independent direct or indirect effect.