Final participation, exclusion, and accommodation rates were presented in quality control tables for each grade and subject by student group. School rates were calculated as they had been calculated for previous assessments and according to National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) standards.
School-level participation rates were below 85 percent for private schools at all three grades. Student-level participation rates were also below 85 percent for students at grade 8 in Cleveland and New York City TUDA districts and for students in grade 12 public schools. As required by NCES standards, nonresponse bias analyses were conducted on each student group falling below the 85 percent participation threshold.