For the 2007 reading and mathematics assessments in fourth- and eighth-grade public schools, the national samples were the state assessment samples for each jurisdiction. For the writing assessment in eighth-grade public schools, the national samples were also the state assessment samples except for five states that declined to participate. By design, the District of Columbia and Bureau of Indian Education schools participated in reading and mathematics only, as they each lacked the required number of students for the state writing assessment. In the design of the state samples, for all seven of the jurisdictions not participating in writing, a small portion of students received the writing assessment to supplement the national writing sample. The national writing sample is also described as part of the state assessment samples.