Public and nonpublic school students enrolled in fourth and twelfth grades
Public school students enrolled in eighth grade
Sample represents all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and domestic Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools.
Public school students enrolled in fourth or eighth grade
Sample represents participating states/jurisdictions, including:
Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools comprised of two separate jurisdictions: domestic (DoDEA/DDESS) and international (DoDEA/DoDDS),
Quality Education Data, Inc. (QED) National Education Database;
National Center for Education Statistics' Common Core of Data (CCD);
National Center for Education Statistics' Private School Survey (PSS); and
1990 Census median household income database created by Donnelley Marketing.