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Results of NAEP Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analyses

Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are completed the first time an item is included in a NAEP assessment. Three comparisons are made with each new item: scores of male students versus scores of female students, scores of White students versus scores of Black students, and scores of White students versus scores of Hispanic students. Items that exhibit a strong indication of DIF are labeled "C" for dichotomous items and "CC" for polytomous items. Numbers of new items classified in each DIF category using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure are provided, along with information about items categorized as "C" or "CC".

Links to NAEP differential item functioning (DIF) results, main assessments, by subject area: selected years, 2000-2012
Subject area Year Sample
Arts 2008 R3
Civics 2010 R3
2006 R3
Economics 2012 R3
2006 R3
Geography 2010 R3
2001 R2 R3
Mathematics 2011 R3
2009 R3
2007 R3
2005 R3
2003 R3
2000 R2 R3
Reading  2011 R3
2009 R3
2007 R3
2005 R3
2003 R3
2002 R3
2000 R2 R3
Reading vocabulary 2011 R3
2009 R3
Science 2011 R3
2009 R3
2005 R3
2000 R2 R3
U.S. History 2010 R3
2006 R3
2001 R2 R3
Writing 2011 R3
† Not applicable.
NOTE: Writing assessments did not indicate DIF. R2 is the non-accommodated reporting sample; R3 is the accommodated reporting sample. It samples students who are classified as students with disabilities (SD) or English language learners (ELL), plus SD/ELL students from sessions in which accommodations were allowed. The R3 sample is more inclusive and excludes a smaller proportion of sampled students.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Selected Years, 2000–2012.

Links to NAEP differential item functioning (DIF) results, long-term trend assessments, by year and subject area: 2004, 2008 and 2012
Subject area Year Sample
Mathematics long-term trend 2012 R3
Reading long-term trend R3
Mathematics long-term trend 2008 R3
Reading long-term trend R3
Mathematics long-term trend 2004 R3
Reading long-term trend R3
NOTE: R2 is the non-accommodated reporting sample; R3 is the accommodated reporting sample. It samples students who are classified as students with disabilities (SD) or English language learners (ELL), plus SD/ELL students from sessions in which accommodations were allowed. The R3 sample is more inclusive and excludes a smaller proportion of sampled students.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Long-Term Trend Assessments, 2004, 2008 and 2012.

Last updated 30 June 2014 (GF)