Page Title:
Keywords:
Description:
Skip Navigation

Variables That Define Groups in NAEP

The variables used to define groups for a given assessment scale (or group of scales) include a broad spectrum of background and experiential variables and composites of such variables. All standard reporting variables are used in the population-structure models. Results for any variables not used in the models may be biased.

The initial step in construction of variables used in the scale score distribution models involves forming student-based vectors of response data from answers to student, teacher, and school questionnaires, demographic and background data, and other student information known prior to scaling.

The initial vectors concatenate this student background information into a series of identifying "contrasts" comprising the following variables and interactions:

  • Categorical variables are derived by expanding the response options of a questionnaire variable into a binary series of one-degree-of-freedom "dummy" variables or contrasts. These form the majority of variables in the vector.
     
  • Demographic variables possess ordinal response options, such as number of hours spent watching television, which are included as linear and/or quadratic multi-degree-of-freedom contrasts. However in 2002 and 2003 assessments, linear multi-degree-of-freedom contrast were replaced by binary series of one-degree-of-freedom "dummy" contrast, and quadratic multi-degree-of-freedom contrast were removed.
     
  • Continuous variables, such as student enrollment in a school or in a grade within a school, are included as contrasts in their original form or a transformation of their original form.
     
  • Interactions of two or more categorical variables form a set of orthogonal one-degree-of-freedom dummy variables or contrasts.

The specifications used for constructing the variables used in the scale score distribution models are provided, along with a summary. Starting in 2008 and continuing forward, the listing of estimation variables used in the population-structure models will be presented in textual format. For more information about NAEP variables, see lists of each variable available by assessment year and subject.

Links to summary tables used to define groups in NAEP: Various years, 2000–2012
Year Subject area
2012 Economics
Mathematics (long-term trend)
Reading (long-term trend)
2011 Mathematics
Reading
Science
Writing
2010 Civics
Geography
U.S. History
2009 Mathematics
Reading
Science
2008 Arts
Mathematics (long term trend)
Reading (long-term trend)
2007 Mathematics
Reading
Writing
2006 Civics
Economics
U.S. history
2005 Mathematics
Reading
Science
2004 Mathematics (long-term trend)
(long-term trend)
2003 Mathematics
Reading
2002 Reading
Writing
2001 Geography
U.S. history
2000 Mathematics
Reading
Science
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 2000–2012 Assessments.

Last updated 01 July 2014 (GF)