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PEDAR: Executive Summary Beyond 9 to 5: The Diversity of Employment Among 1992-93 College Graduates in 1997
Introduction
Prevalence of Alternative Employment
Demographic, Family, and Academic Chatacteristics
Alternative Employment 1 and 4 Years After College Completion
Alternative Employment and Other Labor Market Experiences
Research Methodology
References
Full Report (PDF)
Executive Summary (PDF)
Demographic, Family, and Academic Chatacteristics


Consistent with other current research (Callaghan and Hartmann 1991; Polivka 1996a, 1996b), this analysis indicates that gender was associated with many types of alternative employment. Among 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients who were employed but not enrolled in 1997, women were more likely than men to have some type of alternative working arrangement (16 vs. 14 percent). However, the gender differences varied with the specific type of alternative working arrangement considered. Women were more likely than men to have part-time employment (7 vs. 3 percent) or multiple jobs (8 vs. 5 percent), while men were more likely than women to be self-employed (8 vs. 3 percent). Women were also more likely than men to work in clerical or support occupations (16 vs. 9 percent), while men were more likely than women to work in field professions (13 vs. 5 percent). Except for working in multiple jobs, these differences in alternative employment remained even after controlling for other variables.

Family characteristics were related to various alternative working arrangements among women, but few differences by family characteristics were detected among men. For example, among women, having dependents was associated with a greater likelihood of having some type of alternative working arrangement (24 vs. 13 percent), specifically, self-employment (5 vs. 3 percent) or part-time employment (15 vs. 4 percent). However, these differences were not detected among men. Among both men and women, marital status was related to working part time. However, while married women were more likely than single women to work part time (10 vs. 4 percent), married men were less likely than their single counterparts to work part time (2 vs. 4 percent).

Some aspects of the academic experiences of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients were associated with various types of alternative employment in 1997, 4 years after college completion. Undergraduate grade-point average (GPA) was associated with the likelihood of working part time, having a clerical or support occupation, and having a field profession. As GPA increased, so did the prospect of having part-time employment. In contrast, as GPA increased, the likelihood of having a clerical and support or field occupation decreased.

Several studies have shown that students who concentrate in applied fields such as business and engineering are more likely to be employed full time (Grogger and Eide 1995; Pascarella and Terenzini 1991; Rumberger and Thomas 1993). Consistent with these studies, this analysis shows that business and engineering majors were less likely than average to report having a part-time job (2 percent each vs. 5 percent). Undergraduate major was also associated with type of occupation. Nineteen percent of social science majors reported working in clerical and support occupations. In contrast, education, engineering, and health majors were less likely than average to work in clerical and support occupations (7, 2, and 6 vs. 13 percent). And health majors were less likely than average to work in field professions (2 vs. 8 percent). Because education, engineering, and health are applied fields in which students are preparing for specific professional careers, students who major in these fields are particularly likely to be employed in them after completing college (Horn and Zahn 2001). By definition, the areas for which they have prepared (teaching, medical professions, and engineering) are included in the professional occupations.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education