PEDAR: Executive Summary Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Salary and Other Characteristics of Postsecondary Faculty: Fall 1998
Differences Between Male and Female Faculty Members
Differences Among Racial/Ethnic Groups
Other Findings
Research Methodology
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Executive Summary (PDF)
Other Findings

The multiple regression analysis confirmed that other faculty characteristics besides gender were related to salaries. Tenure status, academic rank, highest degree earned, and number of years since receiving highest degree were all associated with salary. Full professors earned more than associate and assistant professors and faculty in other ranks. Faculty holding doctoral or first-professional degrees earned about 12 percent5 more than faculty holding other degrees, and those who held their highest degrees for more than 15 years earned an average of at least $6,0006 more than their colleagues with less experience.

Institution type, teaching field, and teaching and research activities were also associated with salaries. Compared with faculty who taught at public 2-year institutions, faculty who taught at public and private not-for-profit doctoral institutions earned significantly higher salaries after adjusting for the other variables used in the analysis. Faculty who taught in business, law, communications, and health sciences earned significantly higher salaries than faculty in the natural sciences and engineering. Faculty in the natural sciences and engineering earned more than their counterparts in the humanities. Additionally, faculty who reported producing more than 10 total publications or other permanent creative works over the previous 2 years earned more than their counterparts who had produced fewer works. Salaries were also higher for those faculty members who spent an average of 50 percent or less of their time on teaching activities.

A comparison of results from the 1993 and 1999 administrations of NSOPF also showed that differences among faculty have persisted over time. Overall, the status of faculty across racial/ethnic groups changed little between 1992 and 1998. Women's average salary (in constant 1998 dollars) rose significantly between 1992 and 1998, resulting from an increase in salary among White women in particular. But while salaries among other racial/ethnic groups also appeared to have increased for women (and, in some cases, for men), the standard errors were large, and there was not enough statistical evidence to conclude that these results were significant. In addition to having higher average salaries in 1998 than in 1992, White women were also more likely to have doctoral or first-professional degrees and to be full professors. Despite these changes, no change was detected in the gap between the average salary of White men and women between 1992 and 1998. In fact, no significant changes were detected in the salary gaps between male and female full-time instructional staff between 1992 and 1998 across the four racial/ethnic groups examined.

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