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Table 2. Trends in average mathematics scores of fourth- and eighth-grade students, by country: 1995 to 2007

Grade four Grade eight
Country Average score Difference1 Country Average score Difference1
1995 2007 2007-1995 1995 2007 2007-1995
England 484 541 57* Colombia 332 380 47*
Hong Kong SAR2 557 607 50* Lithuania 472 506 34*
Slovenia 462 502 40* Korea, Rep. of 581 597 17*
Latvia3 499 537 38* United States4, 5 492 508 16*
New Zealand 469 492 23* England4 498 513 16*
Australia 495 516 22* Slovenia 494 501 7*
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 387 402 15* Hong Kong SAR2, 4 569 572 4
United States4, 5 518 529 11* Cyprus 468 465 -2
Singapore 590 599 9 Scotland4 493 487 -6
Scotland4 493 494 1 Hungary 527 517 -10*
Japan 567 568 1 Japan 581 570 -11*
Norway 476 473 -3 Russian Federation 524 512 -12
Hungary 521 510 -12* Romania 474 461 -12*
Netherlands6 549 535 -14* Australia 509 496 -13*
Austria 531 505 -25* Iran, Islamic Rep. of 418 403 -15*
Czech Republic 541 486 -54* Singapore 609 593 -16*
   Norway 498 469 -29*
   Czech Republic 546 504 -42*
   Sweden 540 491 -48*
   Bulgaria 527 464 -63*

Color swatch indicating that Country difference in average scores between 1995 and 2007 is greater than analogous U.S. difference (p < .05) Country difference in average scores between 1995 and 2007 is greater than analogous U.S. difference (p < .05)
Color swatch indicating that Country difference in average scores between 1995 and 2007 is not measurably different from analogous U.S. difference (<em>p</em> < .05) Country difference in average scores between 1995 and 2007 is not measurably different from analogous U.S. difference (p < .05)
Color swatch indicating that Country difference in average scores between 1995 and 2007 is less than analogous U.S. difference (p < .05) Country difference in average scores between 1995 and 2007 is less than analogous U.S. difference (p < .05)
*p < .05. Within-country difference between 1995 and 2007 average scores is significant.
1 Difference calculated by subtracting 1995 from 2007 estimate using unrounded numbers.
2 Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China.
3 In 2007, National Target Population did not include all of the International Target Population defined by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).
4 In 2007, met guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included.
5 In 2007, National Defined Population covered 90 percent to 95 percent of National Target Population.
6 In 2007, nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included.
NOTE: Countries are ordered based on the difference in 1995 and 2007 average scores. All countries met international sampling and other guidelines in 2007, except as noted. Data are not shown for some countries, because comparable data from previous cycles are not available. The tests for significance take into account the standard error for the reported difference. Thus, a small difference between averages for one country may be significant while a large difference for another country may not be significant. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. The standard errors of the estimates are shown in tables E-1 and E-2 available at http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009001.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 1995 and 2007.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education