Statistical Standards Program
Table of Contents
1. Development of Concepts and Methods
2. Planning and Design of Surveys
3. Collection of Data
4. Processing and Editing of Data
5. Analysis of Data / Production of Estimates or Projections
6. Establishment of Review Procedures
7. Dissemination of Data
·Major Types of Tables
·Sizing a Table
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|APPENDIX C: NCES GUIDELINES FOR TABULAR PRESENTATIONS (2002 Edition)|
Tabular notes contain supplementary information necessary for a correct understanding of the table or a part of it. They fit into two categories: (1) headnotes at the top of the table are used only occasionally, and (2) footnotes at the bottom of the table are used often. Footnotes include general notes, reference notes, and source notes.
Tabular notes should be kept as brief as possible without sacrificing clarity. Topical style is used, with subject-noun, verb, articles, and other parts of speech omitted if not essential to understanding.
A headnote should be centered above the boxhead; if two lines are needed, the second should be centered under the first. It should be enclosed in brackets and typed in lowercase letters, except for the first letter of the first word and the first letters of proper nouns and adjectives. No period is placed after the last word; if more than one sentence, a period ends all but the last sentence. The following are typical examples of headnotes.
[Based on a 10-percent sample of applications]
[Includes both public and private]
[Millions of dollars]
Sometimes a headnote may indicate a unit of measurement that applies to some, but not all, of the columns of figures:
[Dollar amounts in thousands]
Normally, one blank line separates the headnotes from the table title; but more room may be left, if necessary, to make the table fit the available space. Two blank lines usually separate the headnote from the top line of the boxhead.
The general note is introduced with the word "NOTE" followed by a colon. For example:
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
The positioning of symbols for reference notes in tables follows definite principles. The symbols are placed at the right of the word the note applies to, in both headings and stubs. They are placed at the right of data in the field of a table; and if a numbered footnote stands alone in a cell, it is enclosed in parentheses: (1). Footnotes are numbered sequentially throughout a single table, but a recurrent reference repeats the symbol. Footnotes follow a logical order, generally line for line from left to right and down.
The placement of footnote symbols within a table and the arrangement of notes at the end of the table are illustrated in the following table. Footnotes are placed at the end of the table. Special notes are listed first, followed by reference footnotes, general notes, and then the source.
Table 1. Families, by family status and presence of own children
The source note should cite the report, relevant survey(s) or sub-survey(s), data reference year, file version number, department name, and agency name. In the case of unpublished data, use the month and year of the tabulation or data file. If the data are drawn from multiple years: for one to three years, report each year; for more than three continuous years, use the year span; and for more than three noncontinuous years use "selected years" and the year span.
Following are some typical examples:
Data from one or more reports:
Revenues and Expenditures for National Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1997-98, Common Core of Data (CCD), "National Public Education Financial Survey" (NPEFS), 1997-98, Version 1, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Data from unpublished tabulations and a published NCES report:
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey, Previously unpublished tabulation (April 1998); and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Dropout Rates in the United States. Selected years 1972-97.