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Table 430. Public and private direct expenditures on education as a percentage of gross domestic product, by level of education and country: Selected years, 1995 through 2008
  All institutions
(including preprimary education and subsidies to households, not separately shown)
Elementary and secondary institutions Higher education institutions
  Public direct expenditures Direct expenditures, 2008 Public direct expenditures Direct expenditures, 2008 Public direct expenditures Direct expenditures, 2008
Country 1995 20001 20051 20061 20071 Public1 Private Total 1995 20001 20051 20061 20071 Public1 Private Total 1995 20001 20051 20061 20071 Public1 Private Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
OECD average2 4.9 4.9   5.0 4.9 4.8 5.1 0.9 5.9 3.5 3.4   3.5   3.4   3.3   3.5   0.3   3.7   0.9 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   0.5   1.5  
Australia 4.5 4.6   4.3 4.1 3.7 3.7 1.4 5.2 3.2 3.7   3.4   3.3   2.9   3.0   0.6   3.6   1.2 0.8   0.8   0.8   0.7   0.7   0.8   1.5  
Austria 5.3 5.4 3  5.2 5.2 5.1 5.2 0.2 5.4 3.8 3.7 3  3.5   3.5   3.5   3.5   0.1   3.6   0.9 1.2 3  1.2   1.2   1.3   1.2   0.1   1.3  
Belgium 5.0 5.1   5.8 5.9 5.9 6.3 0.3 6.6 3.4 3.4 4  3.9   3.9   3.9   4.3   0.2   4.4   0.9 1.2 4  1.2   1.2   1.2   1.3   0.1   1.4  
Canada 5.8 5.2   4.8 4.8 4.6 4.0 3.3 5  3.3 5,6  3.2 5,6  3.1 6        1.5 1.6 5  1.5 5  1.6 5  1.5        
Chile 4.2   3.3 3.0 3.1 3.7 2.7 6.4 3.2   2.7   2.4   2.5   3.0   0.9   3.9   0.6   0.3   0.3   0.3   0.3   1.7   2.0  
                                                                               
Czech Republic 4.8 4.2   4.1 4.2 4.1 3.9 0.6 4.5 3.4 2.8 4  2.7   2.7   2.5   2.5   0.3   2.8   0.7 0.8 4  0.8   1.0   1.0   0.9   0.2   1.2  
Denmark 6.5 6.4 3  6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5 0.6 7.1 4.2 4.1 3,7  4.4 7  4.3 7  4.2 7  4.2 7  0.1 7  4.3 7  1.3 1.5 3,7  1.6 7  1.6 7  1.6 7  1.6 7  0.1 7  1.7 7 
Estonia   4.7 4.6 4.7 5.5 0.2 5.8   3.5   3.4   3.3   3.8   #   3.9     0.9   0.9   1.1   1.1   0.2   1.3  
Finland 6.6 5.5   5.9 5.7 5.5 5.7 0.1 5.9 4.2 3.5   3.8   3.7   3.6   3.8   #   3.8   1.7 1.7   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.6   0.1   1.7  
France 5.8 5.7   5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 0.5 6.0 4.1 4.0   3.8   3.7   3.7   3.7   0.2   3.9   1.0 1.0   1.1   1.1   1.2   1.2   0.2   1.4  
                                                                               
Germany 4.5 4.3   4.2 4.1 4.0 4.1 0.7 4.8 2.9 2.9   2.8   2.7   2.6   2.6   0.4   3.0   1.0 1.0   0.9   0.9   0.9   1.0   0.2   1.2  
Greece 3.7 3.7 3  4.0 2.8 2.7 3,6  2.5 6            0.8 0.9 3  1.4            
Hungary 4.9 4.4   5.1 5.1 4.9 4.8 3.3 2.8   3.3   3.2   3.2   3.0       0.8 0.9   0.9   0.9   0.9   0.9      
Iceland 4.5 5.7 3  7.2 7.2 7.0 7.2 0.7 7.9 3.4 4.6 3  5.2 7  5.1   4.9   4.9   0.2   5.1   0.7 0.8 3  1.1 7  1.0   1.1   1.2   0.1   1.3  
Ireland 4.7 4.1   4.3 4.4 4.4 5.2 0.3 5.6 3.3 2.9 4  3.3   3.4   3.4   4.0   0.1   4.1   0.9 1.2 4  1.0   1.0   1.0   1.2   0.2   1.4  
                                                                               
Israel 6.6   6.2 6.2 5.9 5.9 1.4 7.3 4.5   4.2   4.1   3.9   4.0   0.2   4.2   1.1   1.0   1.0   1.0   0.9   0.7   1.6  
Italy 4.5 4.5   4.3 4.6 4.1 4.5 0.3 4.8 3.2 3.2   3.2   3.4   3.0   3.2   0.1   3.3   0.7 0.7   0.6   0.7   0.6   0.8   0.2   1.0  
Japan 3.6 3.5   3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 1.7 4.9 2.8 2.7 7  2.6 7  2.6 7  2.5 7  2.5 7  0.3 7  2.8 7  0.4 0.5 7  0.5 7  0.5 7  0.5 7  0.5 7  1.0 7  1.5 7 
Korea,
   Republic of
3.6 4.3   4.3 4.5 4.2 4.7 2.8 7.6 3.0 3.3   3.4   3.4   3.1   3.4   0.8   4.2   0.3 0.6   0.6   0.6   0.6   0.6   1.9   2.6  
Luxembourg 4.3   4.2   3.7 6  3.3 6  3.1 6  2.8   0.1   2.9   0.1              
                                                                               
Mexico 4.6 4.7   5.3 4.6 4.7 4.7 1.1 5.8 3.4 3.3   3.7   3.2   3.1   3.1   0.6   3.7   0.8 0.8   0.9   0.8   0.9   0.9   0.4   1.2  
Netherlands 4.6 4.3   4.6 4.8 4.7 4.8 0.8 5.6 3.0 3.0   3.3   3.3   3.3   3.3   0.4   3.7   1.1 1.0   1.0   1.1   1.1   1.1   0.4   1.5  
New Zealand 5.3 5.8   5.2 5.0 4.8 5.4 1.2 6.6 3.8 4.6   4.0   3.8   3.5   3.8   0.6   4.5   1.1 0.9   0.9   0.9   1.0   1.1   0.5   1.6  
Norway 6.8 5.8   5.7 5.4 5.4 7.3 4.1 3.6   3.8   3.7   3.7   5.0       1.5 1.2   1.3   1.2   1.2   1.6   0.1   1.7  
Poland 5.2 5.2 3  5.4 5.2 4.8 5.0 0.7 5.7 3.3 3.7 3  3.7   3.7   3.4   3.4   0.2   3.6   0.8 0.8 3  1.2   0.9   0.9   1.0   0.4   1.5  
                                                                               
Portugal 5.4 5.6 3  5.3 5.1 5.1 4.7 0.5 5.2 4.1 4.1 3  3.8   3.6   3.5   3.4   #   3.4   1.0 1.0 3  0.9   0.9   1.1   0.9   0.5   1.3  
Slovak Republic 4.6 4.0 3  3.7 3.6 3.4 3.5 0.6 4.0 2.7 3,4,8  2.5 8  2.4 8  2.3 8  2.2 8  0.4 8  2.6 8  0.7 3,4,8  0.7 8  0.8 8  0.7 8  0.7 8  0.2 8  0.9 8 
Slovenia   5.3 5.3 4.8 4.8 0.6 5.4   3.9   3.8   3.3   3.4   0.3   3.7     1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   0.2   1.1  
Spain 4.8 4.3   4.1 4.2 4.2 4.5 0.6 5.1 3.5 3.1   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.9   0.2   3.1   0.8 0.9   0.9   0.9   0.9   1.0   0.2   1.2  
Sweden 6.6 6.3   6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1 0.2 6.3 4.4 4.4 4  4.2   4.1   4.1   4.0   #   4.0   1.6 1.5 4  1.5   1.4   1.4   1.4   0.2   1.6  
                                                                               
Switzerland 5.5 5.3   5.6 5.4 5.1 5.3 4.1 3.8   3.9   3.7   3.5   3.8   0.5   4.3   1.1 1.2   1.4   1.4   1.3   1.3      
Turkey 2.2 3.4 3  2.7 1.4 2.4 3    1.9           0.8 1.0 3    0.8          
United Kingdom 4.6 4.5   5.0 5.2 5.2 5.1 0.6 5.7 3.8 3.4   3.8   3.9   4.1   4.2   #   4.2   0.7 0.7   0.9   0.9   0.7   0.6   0.6   1.2  
United States 5.0 4.8   4.8 5.0 5.0 5.1 2.1 7.2 3.5 3.5 5  3.5   3.7   3.7   3.8   0.3   4.1   1.1 0.9 5  1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.7   2.7  
                                                                               
Other reporting
   countries
                                                                             
Brazil   4.4 4.9 5.2 5.3   3.3   3.8   4.0   4.1         0.8   0.8   0.8   0.8      
Russian
     Federation
3.4 3.0 3  3.8 3.9 6.1 4.1 0.7 4.7 1.9 1.7   1.9   2.0   3.4   2.0   0.1   2.1   0.7 0.5   0.8   0.8   1.0   0.9   0.5   1.5  
—Not available.
#Rounds to zero.
1 Includes public subsidies to households attributable for education institutions and direct expenditures on education institutions from international sources, except where noted.
2 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting OECD countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally. The average includes all current OECD countries for which a given year's data are available, even if they were not members of OECD in that year.
3 Public subsidies to households not included in public expenditures.
4 Direct expenditures on education institutions from international sources exceed 1.5 percent of all public expenditures.
5 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in higher education.
6 Preprimary education (for children ages 3 and older) is included in elementary and secondary education.
7 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
8 Occupation-specific education corresponding to that offered at the associate's degree level in the United States is included in secondary education.
NOTE: Public direct expenditures on education include both amounts spent directly by governments to hire educational personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions, or households. Private direct expenditures include the net of public subsidies to households for education institutions. Postsecondary non-higher-education is included in elementary and secondary education unless otherwise noted. All institutions total includes expenditures that could not be reported by level of education. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Online Education Database; and Education at a Glance, 2007 through 2011. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, International Education Indicators: A Time Series Perspective, 1985-1995 (NCES 2000-021). (This table was prepared June 2011.)

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