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Table 362. Amount borrowed, aid status, and sources of aid for full-time, full-year postbaccalaureate students, by level of study and control and level of institution: Selected years, 1992-93 through 2007-08
Level of study,
control and level of institution
Cumulative borrowing for undergraduate and graduate education1  Aid status (percent of students)
Nonaided Source of aid
Percent who borrowed Average amount for those who borrowed (in current dollars) Any aid2 Federal3 State Institutional Employer
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1992-93, all institutions (†) (†) 31.9 (1.03) 68.1 (1.03) 44.4 (1.47) 7.0 (0.66) 40.6 (1.73) 5.3 (0.52)
Master's degree (†) (†) 37.5 (2.13) 62.5 (2.13) 33.8 (2.01) 5.8 (0.79) 42.4 (2.70) 8.3 (0.87)
Public (†) (†) 34.6 (1.98) 65.4 (1.98) 33.9 (1.93) 7.8 (1.07) 44.0 (2.31) 7.6 (1.02)
4-year doctoral (†) (†) 34.3 (2.14) 65.7 (2.14) 32.4 (2.02) 6.7 (1.18) 46.3 (2.52) 7.7 (1.09)
Other 4-year (†) (†) 36.1 (4.12) 63.9 (4.12) 42.5 (4.41) 14.4 (2.90) 30.4 (4.28) 6.8 (2.59)
Private (†) (†) 41.6 (4.05) 58.4 (4.05) 33.7 (3.69) 3.2 (1.04) 40.2 (5.27) 9.4 (1.56)
4-year doctoral (†) (†) 39.3 (4.44) 60.7 (4.44) 34.2 (4.37) 2.9 (1.20) 42.9 (5.75) 8.9 (1.84)
Other 4-year (†) (†) 56.5 (3.79) 43.5 (3.79) 30.5 (3.17) 5.1 (2.58) 22.8 (2.27) 12.1 (2.27)
                                 
Doctor's degree (†) (†) 30.4 (2.28) 69.6 (2.28) 28.3 (2.45) 4.4 (0.71) 51.6 (2.32) 3.0 (0.85)
Public (†) (†) 30.3 (2.77) 69.7 (2.77) 22.3 (2.44) 6.5 (1.02) 55.5 (2.70) 3.9 (1.23)
Private (†) (†) 30.4 (4.11) 69.6 (4.11) 37.8 (4.48) 1.1 (0.73) 45.5 (4.00) 1.7 (0.96)
                                 
First-professional (†) (†) 23.0 (1.17) 77.0 (1.17) 68.2 (1.82) 10.0 (1.54) 37.0 (1.89) 2.3 (0.47)
Public (†) (†) 20.7 (1.30) 79.3 (1.30) 72.5 (1.78) 13.4 (2.13) 37.7 (2.04) 2.3 (0.70)
Private (†) (†) 25.1 (1.71) 74.9 (1.71) 64.3 (2.29) 6.8 (1.32) 36.4 (3.10) 2.3 (0.62)
                                 
Other graduate (†) (†) 39.3 (5.42) 60.7 (5.42) 42.4 (4.39) 6.7 (1.44) 22.9 (3.01) 6.0 (1.91)
                                 
1999-2000, all institutions (†) (†) 17.8 (0.73) 82.2 (0.73) 54.0 (1.05) 6.2 (0.53) 48.7 (1.17) 5.8 (0.45)
Master's degree (†) (†) 20.6 (1.09) 79.4 (1.09) 50.4 (1.33) 5.4 (0.72) 46.2 (1.38) 8.4 (0.88)
Public (†) (†) 21.5 (1.49) 78.5 (1.49) 45.8 (1.62) 7.7 (1.17) 49.6 (1.74) 6.8 (0.88)
4-year doctoral (†) (†) 19.8 (1.60) 80.2 (1.60) 43.9 (1.74) 7.2 (1.34) 54.3 (1.93) 7.1 (1.03)
Other 4-year (†) (†) 29.8 (3.69) 70.2 (3.69) 54.9 (4.45) 10.4 (2.31) 26.8 (3.17) 5.3 (1.30)
Private (†) (†) 19.4 (1.59) 80.6 (1.59) 56.3 (2.16) 2.5 (0.60) 41.9 (2.22) 10.4 (1.66)
4-year doctoral (†) (†) 17.5 (1.82) 82.5 (1.82) 57.7 (2.32) 3.0 (0.79) 49.4 (2.56) 8.3 (1.06)
Other 4-year (†) (†) 24.8 (3.30) 75.2 (3.31) 52.4 (5.10) 1.1 (0.36) 20.9 (4.74) 16.3 (5.55)
                                 
Doctor's degree (†) (†) 11.5 (1.39) 88.6 (1.39) 30.2 (2.85) 2.6 (0.63) 77.5 (1.73) 5.4 (0.65)
Public (†) (†) 10.7 (1.23) 89.4 (1.23) 26.5 (1.60) 3.2 (0.88) 80.6 (1.71) 7.4 (0.97)
Private (†) (†) 12.7 (2.94) 87.3 (2.94) 35.9 (6.36) 1.6 (0.79) 72.9 (3.44) 2.3 (0.54)
                                 
First-professional (†) (†) 11.5 (1.06) 88.5 (1.06) 80.1 (1.48) 9.8 (1.43) 40.2 (2.65) 1.6 (0.44)
Public (†) (†) 11.4 (1.57) 88.6 (1.57) 81.7 (1.81) 13.1 (2.18) 39.5 (2.87) 1.6 (0.64)
Private (†) (†) 11.6 (1.45) 88.4 (1.45) 78.8 (2.29) 7.1 (1.84) 40.8 (4.22) 1.5 (0.60)
                                 
Other graduate (†) (†) 37.3 (3.60) 62.7 (3.60) 44.4 (3.70) 6.3 (1.44) 23.3 (3.35) 7.3 (1.82)
                                 
2003-04, all institutions 74.8 (1.12) $50,740 (1,361) 14.1 (1.06) 85.9 (1.06) 59.6 (1.29) 4.0 (0.74) 41.1 (1.14) 8.6 (0.85)
Master's degree 71.5 (2.05) 36,770 (1,294) 19.5 (1.95) 80.5 (1.95) 54.6 (2.25) 2.8 (0.63) 35.5 (2.00) 10.5 (1.36)
Public 63.3 (2.45) 32,370 (1,202) 21.7 (2.11) 78.3 (2.11) 44.9 (2.46) 2.8 (0.66) 45.0 (2.56) 7.0 (1.06)
4-year doctoral 63.0 (2.62) 33,340 (1,332) 18.7 (1.75) 81.3 (1.75) 46.3 (2.40) 3.1 (0.75) 47.5 (2.57) 7.7 (1.17)
Other 4-year 65.3 (10.80) 25,150 (3,958) 44.6 (10.59) 55.4 (10.59) 34.2 (10.25) (†) 26.2 (9.64) 1.4 (1.09)
Private 79.6 (3.32) 40,250 (2,071) 17.4 (3.45) 82.6 (3.45) 64.1 (3.42) 2.8 (1.08) 26.1 (2.97) 14.0 (2.47)
4-year doctoral 79.1 (2.58) 44,090 (2,641) 14.2 (2.53) 85.8 (2.53) 61.5 (3.60) 2.7 (1.63) 37.1 (2.89) 10.3 (2.13)
Other 4-year 80.2 (7.39) 34,450 (3,261) 22.3 (6.94) 77.7 (6.94) 68.1 (6.49) 2.9 (1.74) 9.1 (4.28) 19.7 (5.43)
                                 
Doctor's degree 58.7 (1.38) 48,810 (2,468) 7.7 (0.86) 92.3 (0.86) 36.0 (1.67) 2.9 (0.80) 72.8 (1.87) 7.9 (0.79)
Public 55.0 (1.57) 40,150 (1,519) 6.6 (0.85) 93.4 (0.85) 33.5 (1.72) 2.7 (0.61) 79.2 (1.59) 8.5 (0.94)
Private 63.9 (2.42) 59,420 (4,821) 9.3 (1.63) 90.7 (1.63) 39.6 (3.33) 3.3 (1.79) 63.8 (3.54) 7.1 (1.26)
                                 
First-professional 87.3 (1.23) 70,710 (2,425) 9.7 (1.23) 90.3 (1.23) 79.5 (1.85) 6.4 (1.79) 33.0 (1.55) 5.0 (0.76)
Public 88.2 (1.77) 61,830 (2,127) 9.4 (1.45) 90.6 (1.45) 79.4 (2.30) 5.1 (0.84) 36.6 (2.15) 5.0 (0.93)
Private 86.5 (1.65) 78,500 (3,687) 9.9 (1.71) 90.1 (1.71) 79.7 (2.37) 7.5 (3.19) 29.9 (2.34) 5.0 (1.05)
                                 
Other graduate 88.0 (3.13) 38,880 (3,212) 19.1 (4.80) 80.9 (4.80) 73.0 (5.69) 3.8 (1.39) 17.1 (4.29) 14.1 (5.74)
                                 
2007-08, all institutions 71.3 (1.18) $54,740 (970) 13.0 (0.65) 87.0 (0.65) 56.7 (1.19) 3.9 (0.28) 44.1 (1.46) 11.5 (0.94)
Master's degree 72.2 (1.58) 43,210 (1,375) 15.2 (1.10) 84.8 (1.10) 56.5 (1.61) 3.0 (0.40) 35.4 (1.68) 16.1 (1.70)
Public 66.0 (1.76) 37,420 (1,400) 13.7 (1.37) 86.3 (1.37) 49.6 (1.84) 4.2 (0.85) 52.1 (2.48) 13.5 (1.45)
4-year doctoral 64.4 (1.95) 38,160 (1,566) 12.3 (1.40) 87.7 (1.40) 48.9 (2.01) 4.3 (0.93) 56.4 (2.67) 14.7 (1.66)
Other 4-year 76.6 (4.80) 33,280 (2,440) 23.1 (4.06) 76.9 (4.06) 54.7 (6.18) (†) 23.6 (5.07) 5.1 (2.08)
Private 76.5 (2.25) 46,660 (1,916) 16.3 (1.61) 83.7 (1.61) 61.3 (2.36) 2.2 (0.40) 23.9 (1.62) 18.0 (2.69)
4-year doctoral 71.0 (1.95) 46,070 (1,609) 19.3 (1.53) 80.7 (1.53) 54.5 (1.65) 2.6 (0.63) 36.0 (2.65) 14.5 (1.17)
Other 4-year 83.4 (4.08) 47,310 (3,605) 12.4 (2.90) 87.6 (2.90) 70.2 (4.43) 1.6 (0.40) 8.0 (1.28) 22.6 (6.10)
                                 
Doctor's degree 58.8 (1.85) 54,420 (2,183) 7.0 (0.84) 93.0 (0.84) 37.0 (2.18) 2.9 (0.41) 72.4 (2.66) 8.0 (0.70)
Public 51.6 (2.20) 43,930 (1,635) 7.9 (1.47) 92.1 (1.47) 28.9 (1.83) 3.6 (0.61) 81.3 (1.85) 7.9 (0.98)
Private 66.6 (2.42) 63,150 (3,182) 6.0 (1.02) 94.0 (1.02) 45.7 (3.39) 2.2 (0.65) 62.8 (4.41) 8.0 (1.14)
                                 
First-professional 84.6 (1.49) 81,170 (1,822) 11.9 (1.18) 88.1 (1.18) 81.1 (1.59) 7.7 (0.84) 35.5 (1.85) 4.6 (0.76)
Public 84.2 (2.00) 72,900 (2,705) 12.0 (1.88) 88.0 (1.88) 81.2 (2.17) 10.9 (1.44) 33.7 (2.60) 4.9 (1.41)
Private 85.0 (2.14) 87,560 (2,334) 11.8 (1.72) 88.2 (1.72) 81.0 (2.11) 5.2 (0.80) 36.9 (2.47) 4.4 (0.68)
                                 
Other graduate 62.2 (6.77) 43,440 (4,185) 31.2 (6.75) 68.8 (6.75) 50.5 (6.93) 1.9 (1.82) 25.7 (5.69) 6.1 (2.97)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases).
1 Includes all loans ever taken out for both graduate and undergraduate education. Does not include Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS) or loans from families and friends.
2 Includes students who reported they were awarded aid, but did not specify the source of aid.
3 Includes Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense benefits.
NOTE: Total includes some students whose level of study was unknown. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because some students receive multiple types of aid and aid from different sources. Data include Puerto Rico. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1992-93, 1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2007-08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Studies (NPSAS:93, NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:04, and NPSAS:08). (This table was prepared November 2009.)
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