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Table 243. Percentage of first-year undergraduate students who took remedial education courses, by selected characteristics: 2003-04 and 2007-08
Selected characteristic 2003-04 first-year undergraduates1 2007-08 first-year undergraduates1
Percent who ever took a remedial course Percent who took remedial course in 2003-04 Number of students (in thou-sands) Percent who ever took a remedial course Number who took a course in 2007-08 (in thou-sands) Percent who took remedial courses in 2007-08
Any course English Mathematics Reading Studying Writing Any courses 1 course 2 courses 3 or more courses
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Total 34.7 (0.37) 19.1   (0.29) 5.7   (0.22) 14.6   (0.26) 5.5   (0.17) 2.3   (0.10) 6.9   (0.18) 8,517 36.2 (0.39) 1,724 20.2   (0.32) 9.3   (0.21) 6.5   (0.16) 4.4 (0.17)
Sex                                                                      
Male 32.9 (0.52) 18.3   (0.45) 5.5   (0.30) 13.9   (0.41) 5.2   (0.22) 2.2   (0.15) 6.6   (0.27) 3,714 32.8 (0.51) 719 19.4   (0.47) 8.9   (0.33) 6.5   (0.25) 3.9 (0.20)
Female 36.0 (0.55) 19.7   (0.39) 5.8   (0.23) 15.0   (0.33) 5.8   (0.24) 2.4   (0.15) 7.1   (0.26) 4,802 38.8 (0.49) 1,005 20.9   (0.40) 9.7   (0.28) 6.5   (0.23) 4.8 (0.23)
                                                                       
Race/ethnicity of student                                                                      
White 31.7 (0.42) 17.7   (0.35) 4.9   (0.21) 13.5   (0.32) 4.4   (0.18) 2.2   (0.14) 6.4   (0.22) 4,897 31.3 (0.39) 881 18.0   (0.39) 8.8   (0.28) 5.4   (0.22) 3.9 (0.19)
Black 41.2 (0.99) 22.4   (0.76) 7.5   (0.52) 17.1   (0.66) 7.8   (0.49) 2.9   (0.26) 6.9   (0.44) 1,397 45.1 (0.96) 344 24.7   (0.85) 11.3   (0.64) 7.7   (0.44) 5.6 (0.48)
Hispanic 37.5 (0.92) 20.9   (0.69) 6.4   (0.52) 16.5   (0.63) 6.9   (0.49) 2.4   (0.25) 8.1   (0.48) 1,386 43.3 (1.11) 323 23.3   (0.79) 9.5   (0.48) 8.8   (0.49) 5.0 (0.41)
Asian 39.6 (1.72) 17.6   (1.56) 8.2   (1.09) 10.9   (1.19) 7.0   (0.83) 1.8   (0.48) 8.4   (0.93) 455 38.0 (1.82) 90 19.8   (1.84) 7.2   (1.03) 7.3   (0.78) 5.2 (0.84)
Pacific Islander 40.8 (5.11) 22.4   (4.55) 10.2 ! (4.18) 19.8   (4.64) 10.1 ! (4.07)   (†) 11.3 ! (4.00) 69 40.0 (4.0) 13 19.3   (3.87) 7.9 ! (2.65) 9.2   (2.67) (†)
American Indian/Alaska
     Native
44.8 (4.33) 23.6   (3.10) 3.4   (0.99) 17.3   (2.79) 8.4   (2.28) 3.9 ! (1.53) 8.0   (2.35) 82 46.8 (4.43) 24 29.0   (3.62) 12.0   (2.03) 9.0   (1.77) 8.0 (1.91)
Two or more races 33.9 (2.01) 20.8   (1.80) 4.7   (0.90) 14.8   (1.48) 4.9   (0.98) 1.9   (0.48) 6.5   (1.12) 205 32.8 (2.15) 43 20.9   (1.72) 12.2   (1.40) 5.2   (1.0) 3.5 (0.81)
Other 31.1 (2.78) 17.2   (2.34) 5.0   (1.35) 14.3   (2.12) 6.1   (1.30) 2.7 ! (0.86) 6.9   (1.63) 26 35.6 (5.97) 6 23.2   (4.92) 7.7 ! (3.08) 9.9 ! (3.02) (†)
                                                                       
Age                                                                      
15 to 23 33.6 (0.41) 21.3   (0.38) 6.5   (0.28) 16.0   (0.34) 6.4   (0.22) 2.5   (0.13) 8.2   (0.22) 5,260 34.6 (0.46) 1,168 22.2   (0.39) 10.1   (0.31) 7.4   (0.22) 4.7 (0.20)
24 to 29 34.9 (1.02) 15.9   (0.78) 4.3   (0.40) 12.8   (0.65) 4.0   (0.40) 2.1   (0.27) 5.0   (0.55) 1,347 39.5 (0.88) 261 19.4   (0.73) 8.9   (0.59) 6.1   (0.45) 4.4 (0.41)
30 or older 37.4 (0.86) 15.6   (0.51) 4.5   (0.35) 12.1   (0.51) 4.4   (0.32) 2.1   (0.21) 4.6   (0.31) 1,910 38.1 (0.92) 295 15.5   (0.63) 7.5   (0.48) 4.3   (0.28) 3.6 (0.35)
                                                                       
Attendance status                                                                      
Exclusively full-time 31.3 (0.46) 19.0   (0.37) 5.7   (0.22) 14.0   (0.35) 5.6   (0.22) 2.6   (0.15) 7.5   (0.23) 4,010 31.4 (0.52) 786 19.6   (0.41) 8.8   (0.28) 6.2   (0.26) 4.6 (0.22)
Exclusively part-time 37.4 (0.65) 17.9   (0.51) 5.3   (0.31) 14.0   (0.46) 5.0   (0.28) 2.0   (0.16) 5.6   (0.28) 3,426 39.8 (0.66) 650 19.0   (0.52) 9.2   (0.33) 5.9   (0.30) 3.9 (0.27)
Mixed full- and part-time 40.9 (0.96) 23.5   (0.84) 7.1   (0.56) 18.6   (0.79) 7.1   (0.47) 2.1   (0.25) 8.3   (0.45) 1,081 42.5 (1.03) 288 26.7   (1.07) 11.8   (0.70) 9.6   (0.51) 5.3 (0.45)
                                                                       
Student housing status                                                                      
On-campus 24.5 (0.70) 16.8   (0.56) 4.8   (0.30) 11.3   (0.49) 4.8   (0.31) 2.4   (0.27) 8.2   (0.40) 1,081 23.1 (0.78) 185 17.1   (0.73) 8.8   (0.59) 5.1   (0.43) 3.2 (0.30)
Off-campus 35.8 (0.59) 16.9   (0.40) 5.1   (0.30) 13.3   (0.35) 4.6   (0.22) 2.3   (0.15) 5.5   (0.28) 4,327 37.3 (0.59) 777 18.0   (0.49) 8.4   (0.36) 5.4   (0.23) 4.1 (0.24)
With parents or relatives 37.6 (0.60) 24.2   (0.59) 7.1   (0.37) 18.3   (0.52) 7.6   (0.35) 2.5   (0.20) 8.6   (0.36) 2,538 39.8 (0.69) 646 25.4   (0.62) 11.0   (0.49) 8.9   (0.37) 5.6 (0.33)
Attended more than one
     institution
36.5 (1.18) 18.3   (0.99) 6.4   (0.58) 14.5   (0.98) 5.0   (0.48) 2.2   (0.32) 6.3   (0.48) 570 36.2 (0.91) 116 20.4   (1.18) 9.6   (0.73) 6.5   (0.52) 4.3 (0.47)
                                                                       
Dependency status                                                                      
Dependent 33.3 (0.45) 21.9   (0.40) 6.6   (0.27) 16.3   (0.35) 6.5   (0.24) 2.5   (0.14) 8.6   (0.23) 4,521 34.3 (0.47) 1,036 22.9   (0.41) 10.4   (0.32) 7.5   (0.24) 5.0 (0.22)
Independent 36.3 (0.62) 16.1   (0.39) 4.8   (0.27) 12.7   (0.37) 4.5   (0.23) 2.2   (0.15) 5.0   (0.27) 3,996 38.3 (0.58) 689 17.2   (0.45) 8.1   (0.30) 5.4   (0.26) 3.7 (0.25)
                                                                       
Veteran status                                                                      
Veteran 35.8 (2.32) 13.2   (1.52) 1.9   (0.51) 9.8   (1.40) 3.1   (0.68) 1.1 ! (0.33) 4.3   (0.84) 260 36.7 (2.27) 44 16.9   (1.95) 10.8   (1.55) 3.8   (0.80) (†)
Not veteran 34.7 (0.39) 19.3   (0.30) 5.8   (0.22) 14.7   (0.27) 5.6   (0.18) 2.4   (0.11) 6.9   (0.18) 8,257 36.1 (0.39) 1,681 20.4   (0.33) 9.3   (0.21) 6.6   (0.17) 4.5 (0.17)
                                                                       
Field of study                                                                      
Business/management 36.3 (0.98) 19.5   (0.95) 5.5   (0.41) 14.6   (0.99) 6.0   (0.44) 2.3   (0.35) 7.3   (0.60) 1,147 36.6 (0.97) 253 22.0   (0.88) 10.4   (0.65) 6.3   (0.50) 5.3 (0.56)
Computer science 33.7 (1.59) 19.1   (1.37) 4.7   (0.66) 14.6   (1.26) 5.3   (0.82) 2.1   (0.46) 5.6   (0.73) 296 36.0 (2.12) 60 20.3   (1.68) 8.7   (1.10) 6.9   (1.04) 4.7 (0.84)
Education 41.1 (1.58) 22.9   (1.13) 6.3   (0.74) 17.4   (1.0) 6.3   (0.72) 2.0   (0.42) 8.7   (0.86) 380 40.8 (1.80) 87 23.0   (1.40) 10.5   (1.04) 7.3   (0.73) 5.2 (0.80)
Engineering 30.3 (1.81) 16.2   (1.42) 5.4   (0.79) 12.7   (1.25) 4.7   (0.76) 2.4   (0.56) 6.6   (0.91) 378 32.3 (1.52) 71 18.7   (1.48) 8.2   (1.10) 6.4   (0.85) 4.2 (0.62)
Health 36.9 (0.82) 19.6   (0.67) 6.1   (0.48) 15.4   (0.62) 5.7   (0.43) 2.7   (0.26) 6.2   (0.49) 1,417 39.1 (0.87) 276 19.5   (0.75) 9.0   (0.57) 5.9   (0.46) 4.6 (0.36)
Humanities 34.1 (1.28) 18.9   (0.94) 5.7   (0.46) 14.3   (0.88) 5.0   (0.52) 1.7   (0.23) 7.3   (0.52) 1,405 38.4 (0.91) 322 22.9   (0.77) 10.6   (0.56) 7.6   (0.46) 4.7 (0.37)
Life sciences 31.1 (1.82) 19.6   (1.71) 5.7   (1.26) 14.5   (1.47) 5.4   (1.21) 2.7   (0.65) 8.0   (1.20) 311 30.6 (1.78) 63 20.3   (1.57) 9.8   (1.09) 6.9   (0.95) 3.5 (0.62)
Mathematics 23.0 (5.55) 11.0 ! (4.43)   (†) 9.3 ! (4.26)   (†)   (†)   (†) 29 40.8 (5.87) 15.1 ! (4.54) 4.8 ! (2.17) 5.6 ! (2.60) (†)
Physical sciences 23.7 (4.35) 12.8   (3.45) 7.4 ! (2.82) 5.2 ! (2.11) 6.3 ! (3.02)   (†)   (†) 45 25.6 (4.12) 15.2   (3.16) 7.0   (1.92) 6.3 ! (2.61) (†)
Social/behavioral sciences 33.2 (2.06) 19.3   (1.57) 5.5   (0.90) 14.5   (1.38) 6.5   (1.0) 2.6   (0.54) 8.6   (1.04) 286 33.7 (1.81) 65 22.5   (1.61) 11.7   (1.21) 6.6   (0.99) 4.3 (0.93)
Vocational/technical 38.4 (2.09) 18.3   (1.59) 5.0   (0.85) 14.4   (1.39) 5.6   (1.0) 2.2   (0.46) 4.7   (0.60) 288 31.5 (2.09) 46 15.8   (1.64) 6.8   (1.04) 5.7   (0.89) 3.3 (0.70)
Undeclared 33.5 (0.67) 19.2   (0.58) 5.9   (0.37) 14.4   (0.49) 5.1   (0.33) 2.5   (0.20) 7.2   (0.37) 1,013 35.8 (1.18) 205 20.3   (1.03) 9.0   (0.65) 6.8   (0.63) 4.4 (0.45)
Other 33.2 (1.51) 17.9   (1.07) 5.2   (0.67) 13.6   (0.95) 6.1   (0.56) 2.4   (0.34) 5.8   (0.56) 888 34.2 (1.18) 164 18.5   (0.93) 8.3   (0.73) 6.0   (0.56) 4.2 (0.44)
                                                                       
Type of institution                                                                      
  Public less-than-2-year 30.6 (1.85) 10.9   (1.09) 4.8   (0.80) 9.4   (1.05) 4.0   (0.86) 1.4 ! (0.58) 3.9   (0.90) 80 31.5 (2.58) 7 9.1   (0.88) 4.7   (1.01) 0.7 ! (0.34) 3.7 (0.70)
  Public 2-year 41.4 (0.59) 23.0   (0.47) 6.9   (0.33) 18.3   (0.42) 7.1   (0.28) 2.4   (0.15) 7.2   (0.27) 4,855 41.9 (0.48) 1,160 23.9   (0.43) 10.7   (0.30) 8.0   (0.25) 5.2 (0.25)
  Public 4-year nondoctorate 34.1 (1.75) 21.3   (1.11) 5.3   (0.60) 16.3   (1.04) 5.2   (0.55) 1.9   (0.28) 8.5   (0.62) 690 38.6 (1.47) 175 25.3   (1.10) 12.0   (0.68) 8.8   (0.64) 4.5 (0.53)
  Public 4-year doctorate 25.7 (1.11) 16.3   (0.63) 4.4   (0.34) 11.6   (0.60) 3.9   (0.39) 2.6   (0.27) 8.1   (0.42) 823 24.2 (0.96) 142 17.2   (0.77) 10.0   (0.58) 4.5   (0.35) 2.7 (0.28)
  Private not-for-profit
   less-than-4-year
30.8 (1.87) 12.6   (1.69) 4.2   (0.93) 10.1   (1.33) 2.7   (0.71) 2.3 ! (0.73) 4.8   (1.14) 53 33.0 (3.07) 6 10.7   (2.47) 4.6   (1.23) 1.8 ! (0.71) 4.3 (0.99)
  Private not-for-profit
    4-year nondoctorate
25.7 (1.19) 14.4   (0.81) 5.2   (0.70) 9.4   (0.56) 3.9   (0.42) 2.0   (0.29) 6.7   (0.79) 415 25.8 (1.69) 68 16.5   (1.44) 6.9   (1.08) 5.4   (0.67) 4.1 (0.68)
  Private not-for-profit
   4-year doctorate
18.4 (1.64) 11.7   (1.37) 2.5   (0.53) 7.5   (1.34) 2.9   (0.56) 2.2 ! (0.67) 6.3   (0.90) 319 22.3 (1.66) 43 13.3   (1.36) 6.9   (1.10) 3.7   (0.65) 2.7 (0.43)
  Private for-profit
     less-than-2-year
24.1 (0.48) 7.8   (0.23) 3.1   (0.18) 4.7   (0.16) 2.2   (0.19) 2.3   (0.12) 3.5   (0.22) 380 26.7 (0.77) 22 5.7   (0.43) 2.2   (0.25) 1.4   (0.25) 2.0 (0.22)
  Private for-profit 2 years
     or more
25.3 (1.63) 11.7   (1.04) 4.1   (0.50) 7.5   (0.75) 3.3   (0.45) 2.7   (0.39) 4.9   (0.70) 904 28.8 (1.32) 103 11.4   (1.12) 4.9   (0.69) 2.9   (0.57) 3.6 (0.73)
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 30 percent or greater.
† Not applicable
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases).
1 Student status was determined by accumulation of credits. Students attending postsecondary education part-time, or not completing the credit accumulation requirements for second-year status, could be considered first-year students for more than one year.
NOTE: Data are based on a sample survey of students who enrolled at any time during the school year. Data include Puerto Rico. Detail may not sum to totals because of survey item nonresponse and rounding. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2003-04 and 2007-08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04 and NPSAS:08). (This table was prepared July 2010.)
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