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Table 122. Children's reading, mathematics, and fine motor scale scores at kindergarten entry, by age of child and selected characteristics: 2006-07 and 2007-08
Age and selected characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percentage distri- bution of children Average early reading scale score1 Average mathematics scale score2 Fine motor score3
1 2 3 4 5 6
Less than 5 years old (less than
   60 months)
                   
Total 65 (10.5) 100.0 (†) 35.0 (1.96) 38.3 (1.35) 2.0 (0.18)
                     
Sex of child                    
Male 37 (8.0) 57.0 (7.08) 37.9 (2.96) 39.8 (2.09) 2.1 (0.32)
Female 28 (6.0) 43.0 (7.08) 31.1 (2.57) 36.2 (1.98) 1.9 (0.20)
                     
5 to 6 years old                    
Total 3,192 (28.7) 100.0 (†) 42.8 (0.36) 43.2 (0.24) 2.6 (0.03)
                     
Sex of child                    
Male 1,605 (21.3) 50.3 (0.43) 41.6 (0.45) 42.8 (0.31) 2.5 (0.03)
Female 1,587 (18.4) 49.7 (0.43) 44.0 (0.42) 43.5 (0.27) 2.7 (0.04)
                     
Race/ethnicity of child                    
White 1,680 (31.9) 52.8 (0.80) 45.1 (0.47) 45.5 (0.30) 2.7 (0.04)
Black 447 (14.3) 14.0 (0.43) 40.2 (0.57) 39.8 (0.48) 2.4 (0.05)
Hispanic 813 (17.8) 25.5 (0.52) 38.4 (0.59) 39.6 (0.42) 2.5 (0.05)
Asian 88 (4.5) 2.8 (0.15) 51.4 (0.80) 48.2 (0.45) 3.2 (0.05)
Pacific Islander (†) 0.2 (0.06) (†) (†) (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native 15 (1.8) 0.5 (0.05) 36.2 (1.68) 36.2 (2.36) 2.1 (0.23)
Two or more races 134 (12.3) 4.2 (0.39) 43.9 (1.50) 43.7 (0.90) 2.6 (0.10)
                     
Primary type of nonparental care
   arrangement prior to
   kindergarten entry4
                   
No regular nonparental
     arrangement
551 (22.5) 17.3 (0.72) 38.6 (0.70) 40.2 (0.53) 2.4 (0.06)
Home-based care                    
Relative care5 382 (23.1) 12.0 (0.70) 39.4 (0.77) 41.1 (0.55) 2.4 (0.07)
Nonrelative care6 200 (14.3) 6.3 (0.46) 43.8 (1.19) 45.4 (0.82) 2.7 (0.10)
Head Start 436 (28.0) 13.7 (0.86) 38.7 (0.72) 40.1 (0.50) 2.4 (0.06)
Other center-based care7 1,565 (32.9) 49.1 (0.89) 46.2 (0.42) 45.3 (0.27) 2.7 (0.03)
Multiple arrangements8 54 (8.3) 1.7 (0.26) 41.5 (1.58) 42.1 (1.23) 2.5 (0.20)
                     
Mother's employment status                    
Full-time (35 hours or more) 1,366 (29.1) 43.1 (0.76) 43.7 (0.42) 43.6 (0.25) 2.6 (0.03)
Part-time (less than 35 hours) 594 (27.5) 18.8 (0.86) 44.6 (0.67) 45.3 (0.41) 2.7 (0.05)
Looking for work 172 (13.0) 5.4 (0.40) 36.2 (1.21) 38.3 (0.94) 2.4 (0.10)
Not in labor force 1,001 (29.2) 31.6 (0.91) 41.8 (0.50) 42.2 (0.38) 2.5 (0.04)
No mother in household 34 (5.8) 1.1 (0.18) 42.8 (2.30) 44.5 (1.87) 2.5 (0.20)
                     
Parents' highest level
   of education
                   
Less than high school 345 (15.9) 10.8 (0.47) 33.7 (0.83) 36.8 (0.59) 2.3 (0.09)
High school completion 793 (26.3) 24.9 (0.80) 38.7 (0.57) 40.0 (0.42) 2.3 (0.05)
Some college/vocational 992 (27.3) 31.1 (0.80) 42.2 (0.54) 42.6 (0.36) 2.6 (0.05)
Bachelor's degree 533 (20.2) 16.7 (0.64) 47.9 (0.53) 46.9 (0.43) 2.8 (0.06)
Any graduate education 524 (16.7) 16.4 (0.49) 51.0 (0.56) 49.4 (0.36) 3.0 (0.04)
                     
Primary home language9                    
English 2,571 (28.4) 80.9 (0.69) 43.6 (0.41) 43.8 (0.26) 2.6 (0.03)
Non-English 605 (23.6) 19.1 (0.69) 39.3 (0.66) 40.5 (0.43) 2.7 (0.05)
                     
Poverty status10                    
Below poverty threshold 774 (26.8) 24.3 (0.82) 36.3 (0.51) 38.3 (0.39) 2.3 (0.05)
At or above poverty threshold 2,417 (34.8) 75.7 (0.82) 44.8 (0.38) 44.7 (0.23) 2.7 (0.03)
                     
Socioeconomic status in 200411                    
Lowest 20 percent 643 (22.0) 20.2 (0.65) 35.0 (0.66) 37.7 (0.47) 2.2 (0.06)
Middle 60 percent 1,924 (34.5) 60.3 (0.93) 42.7 (0.43) 42.9 (0.28) 2.6 (0.03)
Highest 20 percent 624 (20.9) 19.5 (0.65) 51.2 (0.52) 49.5 (0.33) 3.0 (0.04)
                     
More than 6 years old (73 months
   or older)
                   
Total 640 (29.1) 100.0 (†) 50.4 (0.64) 48.9 (0.49) 2.8 (0.06)
                     
Sex of child                    
Male 352 (20.2) 54.9 (1.87) 49.6 (0.89) 48.8 (0.66) 2.7 (0.08)
Female 288 (17.6) 45.1 (1.87) 51.4 (0.82) 48.9 (0.57) 2.9 (0.06)
                     
Socioeconomic status in 200411                    
Lowest 20 percent 111 (12.8) 17.4 (1.80) 43.2 (2.05) 42.5 (1.20) 2.5 (0.13)
Middle 60 percent 392 (24.1) 61.2 (2.08) 49.5 (0.60) 48.5 (0.52) 2.8 (0.07)
Highest 20 percent 137 (11.4) 21.5 (1.78) 58.7 (1.11) 54.9 (0.72) 3.1 (0.11)
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases).
1 Reflects performance on language and literacy items (e.g., conventions of print, letter recognition, understanding of letter-sound relationships, phonological awareness, sight word recognition, and understanding words in the context of simple sentences). Potential score ranges from 0 to 85.
2 Includes number sense, geometry, counting, operations, and patterns. Potential score ranges from 0 to 71.
3 Measures the ability to use fine motor skills in drawing basic forms and shapes. Potential score ranges from 0 to 4.
4 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
5 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
6 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
7 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools, excluding Head Start.
8 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
9 Primary home language was asked of the parent interview respondent.
10 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2006 (for 2006-07 kindergarten entrants) and 2007 (for 2007-08 kindergarten entrants), which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2006, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $20,614.
11 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by WKR0. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were born in 2001. About 75 percent of the children born in 2001 entered kindergarten in the 2006-07 school year, and the other 25 percent entered kindergarten in the 2007-08 school year; estimates in this table combine data collected in these two school years. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), Longitudinal 9-Month–Kindergarten 2007 Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared May 2010.)
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