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Table 121. Children's reading, language, mathematics, color knowledge, and fine motor skills at about 4 years of age, by age of child and selected characteristics: 2005-06
Age and selected characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percentage distri-
bution of children
Average early reading scale score1 Expressive vocabulary (telling stories) score2 Average mathematics scale score3 Color knowledge--percent scoring 10 out of 104 Fine motor score5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Less than 48 months                            
Total 645 (22.3) 100.0 (†) 21.5 (0.32) 2.1 (0.04) 24.5 (0.31) 49.0 (1.89) 2.5 (0.05)
Sex of child                            
Male 324 (15.8) 50.3 (1.79) 20.7 (0.48) 1.9 (0.05) 23.5 (0.44) 41.8 (3.03) 2.3 (0.07)
Female 321 (16.3) 49.7 (1.79) 22.4 (0.43) 2.2 (0.06) 25.5 (0.45) 56.1 (2.40) 2.8 (0.06)
                             
Socioeconomic status6                            
Lowest 20 percent 121 (11.3) 18.7 (1.50) 16.7 (0.35) 1.8 (0.09) 19.1 (0.52) 16.2 (3.65) 2.0 (0.10)
Middle 60 percent 380 (16.7) 58.9 (1.67) 21.0 (0.39) 2.1 (0.04) 24.2 (0.39) 50.9 (2.57) 2.6 (0.06)
Highest 20 percent 144 (10.7) 22.4 (1.59) 26.3 (0.67) 2.2 (0.07) 29.2 (0.64) 67.8 (2.97) 2.9 (0.09)
                             
48 through 57 months                            
Total 2,939 (23.2) 100.0 (†) 25.5 (0.22) 2.4 (0.02) 29.7 (0.20) 63.6 (0.84) 3.4 (0.02)
Sex of child                            
Male 1,516 (18.2) 51.6 (0.48) 24.6 (0.26) 2.3 (0.03) 29.2 (0.25) 61.2 (1.12) 3.1 (0.04)
Female 1,423 (18.4) 48.4 (0.48) 26.4 (0.29) 2.6 (0.02) 30.3 (0.24) 66.1 (1.29) 3.7 (0.04)
                             
Race/ethnicity of child                            
White 1,604 (22.9) 54.7 (0.69) 27.4 (0.30) 2.6 (0.03) 31.6 (0.28) 71.0 (1.11) 3.5 (0.03)
Black 391 (11.5) 13.3 (0.37) 22.9 (0.46) 2.4 (0.04) 26.9 (0.44) 55.3 (2.44) 3.2 (0.06)
Hispanic 729 (18.1) 24.9 (0.56) 21.2 (0.36) 2.1 (0.04) 26.2 (0.34) 50.2 (1.79) 3.3 (0.06)
Asian 74 (3.6) 2.5 (0.12) 30.5 (0.56) 2.1 (0.05) 34.7 (0.42) 70.7 (2.37) 4.5 (0.09)
Pacific Islander 4 (0.7) 0.1 (0.03) 22.2 (2.24) 2.1 (0.18) 26.3 (3.41) 39.0 (9.21) 3.0 (0.34)
American Indian/Alaska Native 15 (1.5) 0.5 (0.05) 20.1 (0.89) 2.1 (0.09) 23.2 (0.98) 44.1 (3.83) 3.0 (0.18)
Two or more races 115 (9.0) 3.9 (0.31) 27.3 (0.89) 2.5 (0.06) 30.2 (0.82) 62.7 (3.04) 3.5 (0.12)
                             
Primary type of nonparental care
   arrangement7
                           
No regular nonparental
     arrangement
535 (20.8) 18.2 (0.69) 22.9 (0.41) 2.3 (0.04) 26.9 (0.41) 51.6 (2.04) 3.1 (0.05)
Home-based care                            
Relative care8 384 (18.8) 13.1 (0.65) 23.0 (0.44) 2.3 (0.05) 27.3 (0.42) 53.4 (2.58) 3.2 (0.07)
Nonrelative care9 220 (11.8) 7.5 (0.40) 25.1 (0.51) 2.5 (0.07) 30.2 (0.58) 63.8 (2.72) 3.3 (0.09)
Head Start 386 (22.3) 13.2 (0.73) 22.2 (0.35) 2.3 (0.05) 26.8 (0.40) 52.8 (2.55) 3.2 (0.07)
Other center-based care10 1,358 (26.2) 46.3 (0.83) 28.0 (0.32) 2.6 (0.03) 32.2 (0.27) 73.5 (1.19) 3.6 (0.04)
Multiple arrangements11 52 (6.8) 1.8 (0.23) 24.6 (0.93) 2.5 (0.10) 29.3 (0.92) 67.1 (5.44) 3.2 (0.23)
                             
Mother's employment status                            
Full-time (35 hours or more) 1,149 (26.5) 39.4 (0.85) 25.6 (0.30) 2.5 (0.03) 30.3 (0.24) 67.5 (1.09) 3.5 (0.05)
Part-time (less than 35 hours) 573 (17.7) 19.6 (0.60) 26.3 (0.35) 2.5 (0.04) 30.6 (0.35) 63.5 (2.06) 3.5 (0.05)
Looking for work 163 (9.9) 5.6 (0.34) 21.7 (0.57) 2.2 (0.07) 25.8 (0.74) 47.1 (3.83) 3.0 (0.11)
Not in labor force 1,010 (27.1) 34.6 (0.88) 25.5 (0.39) 2.4 (0.03) 29.3 (0.35) 62.1 (1.42) 3.3 (0.04)
No mother in household 22 (4.0) 0.8 (0.14) 21.6 (1.35) 2.3 (0.24) 26.3 (1.25) 57.3 (8.79) 3.0 (0.21)
                             
Parents' highest level
   of education
                           
Less than high school 292 (11.9) 9.9 (0.41) 18.7 (0.41) 1.9 (0.06) 23.6 (0.47) 37.3 (2.74) 3.1 (0.09)
High school completion 672 (24.1) 22.9 (0.79) 21.6 (0.28) 2.3 (0.03) 25.9 (0.30) 52.0 (1.64) 3.1 (0.04)
Some college/vocational 998 (23.5) 34.0 (0.76) 24.3 (0.30) 2.5 (0.03) 28.9 (0.28) 63.4 (1.29) 3.4 (0.04)
Bachelor's degree 498 (17.6) 17.0 (0.57) 28.8 (0.40) 2.7 (0.04) 33.2 (0.28) 75.6 (1.69) 3.7 (0.08)
Any graduate education 475 (14.6) 16.2 (0.49) 33.0 (0.43) 2.7 (0.04) 36.2 (0.33) 81.0 (1.48) 3.9 (0.05)
                             
Poverty status12                            
Below poverty threshold 732 (21.0) 24.9 (0.71) 20.5 (0.26) 2.1 (0.03) 24.6 (0.28) 46.9 (1.76) 3.1 (0.05)
At or above poverty threshold 2,207 (28.4) 75.1 (0.71) 27.0 (0.24) 2.5 (0.02) 31.3 (0.21) 68.8 (0.91) 3.5 (0.03)
                             
Socioeconomic status6                            
Lowest 20 percent 576 (17.2) 19.6 (0.57) 19.3 (0.31) 2.0 (0.04) 23.6 (0.35) 43.1 (2.15) 3.0 (0.06)
Middle 60 percent 1,768 (27.3) 60.2 (0.77) 24.7 (0.22) 2.5 (0.03) 29.3 (0.23) 63.5 (1.07) 3.4 (0.03)
Highest 20 percent 594 (20.4) 20.2 (0.68) 32.7 (0.43) 2.8 (0.03) 36.2 (0.33) 81.6 (1.51) 3.9 (0.05)
                             
58 or more months                            
Total 356 (16.4) 100.0 (†) 29.7 (0.58) 2.6 (0.04) 34.5 (0.44) 71.1 (2.09) 4.1 (0.07)
Sex of child                            
Male 179 (12.1) 50.3 (2.21) 29.0 (0.77) 2.6 (0.06) 34.2 (0.64) 66.5 (3.05) 3.7 (0.10)
Female 177 (10.5) 49.7 (2.21) 30.4 (0.76) 2.7 (0.06) 34.8 (0.51) 75.9 (2.49) 4.4 (0.10)
                             
Socioeconomic status6                            
Lowest 20 percent 91 (8.0) 25.5 (2.26) 22.3 (0.91) 2.1 (0.11) 28.4 (0.97) 47.4 (5.25) 3.6 (0.14)
Middle 60 percent 215 (14.7) 60.5 (2.47) 30.0 (0.75) 2.7 (0.05) 34.9 (0.54) 76.0 (2.63) 4.1 (0.10)
Highest 20 percent 50 (6.9) 14.0 (1.84) 40.3 (2.31) 2.9 (0.10) 42.8 (1.15) 88.5 (2.89) 4.7 (0.18)
†Not applicable.
1 Reflects performance on language and literacy items (e.g., conventions of print, letter recognition, understanding of letter-sound relationships, phonological awareness, sight word recognition, and understanding words in the context of simple sentences). Potential score ranges from 0 to 85.
2 Verbal expressiveness using gestures, words, and sentences. Potential score ranges from 0 to 5.
3 Includes number sense, geometry, counting, operations, and patterns. Potential score ranges from 0 to 71.
4 Percentage of children who scored 10 on a test with a potential score range of 0 to 10. These children were able to name the colors of five pictured objects (2 points per correct answer).
5 Measures the ability to use fine motor skills in drawing basic forms and shapes. Potential score ranges from 0 to 7.
6 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations, and family income.
7 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
8 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
9 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
10 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools, excluding Head Start.
11 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
12 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2005, which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2005, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $19,971.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W3R0. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were born in 2001. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse. Standard errors appear in parentheses. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), Longitudinal 9-Month–Kindergarten 2007 Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared December 2010.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education