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Table 120. Percentage of children demonstrating specific cognitive skills, motor skills, and secure emotional attachment to parents at about 2 years of age, by selected characteristics: 2003-04
Selected characteristic Percentage distribution of children1 Percent of children who demonstrate skills or secure emotional attachment
Specific cognitive skills2 Specific motor skills2 Secure emotional attachment to parent3
Receptive vocabu-
lary4
Expressive vocabu-
lary5
Listening compre-
hension6
Matching/ discrim-
ination7
Early coun-
ting8
Skillful walking9 Balance10 Fine motor control11 Uses stairs12 Alternating balance13 Motor plan-
ning14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Total 100.0 (†) 84.5 (0.38) 63.9 (0.53) 36.6 (0.42) 31.9 (0.39) 3.9 (0.14) 92.6 (0.20) 89.4 (0.33) 55.5 (0.48) 48.1 (0.41) 30.0 (0.47) 10.2 (0.21) 61.6 (1.12)
Sex of child                                                    
Male 51.1 (0.21) 81.4 (0.56) 59.3 (0.75) 32.9 (0.58) 28.4 (0.53) 3.0 (0.16) 92.0 (0.26) 88.4 (0.43) 54.2 (0.53) 46.9 (0.44) 28.7 (0.48) 9.6 (0.20) 55.0 (1.23)
Female 48.9 (0.21) 87.7 (0.38) 68.9 (0.59) 40.6 (0.50) 35.6 (0.48) 4.8 (0.20) 93.2 (0.20) 90.5 (0.32) 56.8 (0.53) 49.3 (0.47) 31.3 (0.55) 10.9 (0.26) 68.4 (1.27)
                                                     
Race/ethnicity of child                                                    
White 54.6 (0.61) 88.7 (0.40) 70.7 (0.63) 42.2 (0.52) 37.1 (0.49) 5.2 (0.21) 92.8 (0.23) 89.9 (0.38) 55.8 (0.58) 48.4 (0.50) 30.2 (0.58) 10.4 (0.26) 65.7 (1.41)
Black 13.4 (0.29) 79.4 (0.93) 55.7 (1.18) 29.9 (0.86) 25.5 (0.75) 2.2 (0.21) 93.3 (0.40) 90.6 (0.66) 58.0 (0.94) 50.2 (0.79) 32.5 (0.87) 11.2 (0.37) 53.3 (2.13)
Hispanic 24.5 (0.45) 78.3 (0.99) 53.7 (1.19) 28.2 (0.83) 24.1 (0.73) 1.9 (0.16) 91.6 (0.42) 87.9 (0.69) 53.5 (0.76) 46.3 (0.65) 28.2 (0.66) 9.4 (0.27) 57.3 (1.84)
Asian 2.7 (0.10) 82.5 (1.23) 61.8 (1.40) 35.2 (0.93) 30.5 (0.82) 3.6 (0.27) 92.4 (0.39) 89.2 (0.65) 54.7 (0.91) 47.4 (0.72) 29.2 (0.76) 9.9 (0.29) 61.1 (2.29)
Pacific Islander 0.2 (0.05) 78.8 (4.16) 54.1 (5.83) 27.8 (4.30) 23.2 (3.61) 1.1 (0.36) 92.8 (1.34) 90.0 (2.29) 54.0 (4.00) 46.5 (2.99) 27.4 (3.24) 8.9 (1.22) 61.9 (12.63)
American Indian/Alaska Native 0.5 (0.06) 75.3 (3.99) 50.5 (4.17) 25.9 (2.69) 22.0 (2.23) 1.5 (0.27) 92.4 (0.70) 89.1 (1.28) 55.1 (1.14) 47.9 (0.90) 29.8 (1.05) 10.1 (0.45) 46.3 (5.14)
Two or more races 4.1 (0.31) 85.1 (0.91) 64.7 (1.47) 37.2 (1.26) 32.3 (1.26) 3.7 (0.55) 92.4 (0.54) 89.1 (0.93) 54.4 (1.35) 47.2 (1.11) 28.9 (1.22) 9.7 (0.53) 61.4 (3.03)
                                                     
Age of child                                                    
22 months 2.0 (0.30) 78.1 (2.15) 53.1 (2.77) 28.4 (2.34) 24.5 (2.31) 2.9 (1.01) 90.9 (1.68) 86.5 (2.78) 53.4 (3.05) 46.5 (2.70) 29.2 (2.77) 10.6 (1.58) 65.1 (5.06)
23 months 42.3 (1.22) 81.9 (0.54) 60.1 (0.66) 33.4 (0.47) 28.8 (0.41) 2.9 (0.13) 92.2 (0.27) 88.7 (0.45) 54.3 (0.59) 47.0 (0.49) 28.8 (0.53) 9.7 (0.22) 62.7 (1.40)
24 months 42.0 (1.02) 86.5 (0.42) 66.9 (0.65) 39.1 (0.56) 34.3 (0.54) 4.6 (0.23) 92.9 (0.22) 90.0 (0.37) 56.1 (0.57) 48.6 (0.48) 30.4 (0.57) 10.4 (0.25) 60.8 (1.65)
25 months 13.7 (0.54) 87.4 (0.58) 68.3 (0.91) 40.3 (0.78) 35.4 (0.77) 5.0 (0.35) 93.0 (0.35) 90.2 (0.56) 57.5 (0.79) 50.0 (0.68) 32.4 (0.81) 11.4 (0.40) 59.8 (1.90)
                                                     
Primary type of nonparental care
   arrangement15
                                                   
No regular nonparental
     arrangement
50.8 (0.75) 83.4 (0.50) 62.0 (0.70) 34.8 (0.56) 30.2 (0.52) 3.3 (0.17) 92.2 (0.26) 88.8 (0.43) 54.5 (0.55) 47.2 (0.47) 29.0 (0.52) 9.7 (0.22) 62.1 (1.35)
Home-based care                                                    
Relative care16 18.6 (0.63) 83.2 (0.70) 61.6 (1.04) 34.7 (0.84) 30.1 (0.78) 3.6 (0.29) 92.7 (0.30) 89.7 (0.49) 55.8 (0.79) 48.3 (0.67) 30.1 (0.77) 10.3 (0.35) 57.5 (1.94)
Nonrelative care17 14.5 (0.57) 86.7 (0.72) 67.8 (1.00) 39.8 (0.81) 34.8 (0.76) 4.4 (0.29) 93.3 (0.27) 90.6 (0.46) 57.1 (0.73) 49.5 (0.63) 31.5 (0.74) 10.8 (0.35) 61.1 (2.23)
Center-based care18 15.6 (0.51) 87.5 (0.69) 69.4 (0.99) 41.6 (0.84) 36.8 (0.82) 5.5 (0.47) 93.0 (0.31) 90.2 (0.50) 56.9 (0.70) 49.5 (0.61) 31.8 (0.74) 11.2 (0.37) 64.6 (1.87)
Multiple arrangements19 0.5 (0.09) 81.7 (5.66) 63.1 (7.07) 38.0 (5.92) 33.8 (5.68) 6.2 (2.87) 91.3 (1.70) 87.1 (2.97) 52.4 (3.41) 45.8 (2.92) 27.9 (3.29) 9.8 (1.62) 72.2 (8.48)
                                                     
Mother's employment status                                                    
Full-time (35 hours or more) 34.3 (0.76) 85.6 (0.56) 65.8 (0.83) 38.2 (0.66) 33.4 (0.62) 4.2 (0.24) 93.0 (0.25) 90.1 (0.43) 56.6 (0.65) 49.1 (0.57) 31.2 (0.66) 10.8 (0.31) 59.8 (1.58)
Part-time (less than 35 hours) 20.3 (0.69) 86.6 (0.64) 67.6 (0.98) 39.7 (0.84) 34.8 (0.80) 4.7 (0.37) 92.8 (0.28) 89.8 (0.47) 55.5 (0.70) 48.1 (0.58) 29.8 (0.66) 10.1 (0.30) 65.2 (1.53)
Looking for work 6.3 (0.33) 80.1 (1.28) 56.6 (1.77) 30.2 (1.33) 25.8 (1.20) 1.9 (0.24) 92.0 (0.48) 88.4 (0.81) 53.8 (1.04) 46.7 (0.85) 28.5 (0.91) 9.6 (0.37) 58.8 (3.07)
Not in labor force 38.8 (0.82) 83.1 (0.56) 61.6 (0.77) 34.7 (0.63) 30.1 (0.60) 3.4 (0.21) 92.2 (0.26) 88.8 (0.43) 54.6 (0.56) 47.3 (0.49) 29.2 (0.54) 9.9 (0.24) 61.4 (1.41)
No mother in household 0.4 (0.09) 82.1 (4.44) 58.8 (6.94) 33.5 (6.05) 29.3 (5.73) 5.7 (3.06) 94.4 (1.25) 92.4 (2.19) 59.7 (3.58) 51.6 (2.90) 33.5 (3.30) 11.3 (1.37) 62.1 (9.92)
                                                     
Parents' highest level
   of education
                                                   
Less than high school 12.2 (0.37) 76.6 (1.00) 50.5 (1.32) 25.4 (0.95) 21.6 (0.81) 1.3 (0.14) 91.2 (0.43) 87.3 (0.70) 52.7 (0.84) 45.6 (0.69) 27.4 (0.71) 9.0 (0.28) 51.8 (2.90)
High school completion 25.2 (0.52) 81.9 (0.61) 58.7 (0.88) 31.8 (0.68) 27.2 (0.62) 2.3 (0.18) 92.4 (0.29) 89.3 (0.47) 55.2 (0.66) 47.8 (0.56) 29.7 (0.63) 10.0 (0.27) 54.3 (1.78)
Some college/vocational 29.7 (0.53) 84.4 (0.62) 64.0 (0.85) 36.6 (0.68) 31.8 (0.65) 3.7 (0.21) 92.5 (0.31) 89.4 (0.51) 55.6 (0.70) 48.2 (0.60) 30.2 (0.67) 10.4 (0.30) 62.6 (1.77)
Bachelor's degree 17.5 (0.46) 88.6 (0.66) 71.1 (1.11) 42.6 (0.99) 37.4 (0.98) 5.3 (0.47) 93.2 (0.30) 90.5 (0.52) 56.7 (0.79) 49.1 (0.67) 31.0 (0.78) 10.7 (0.37) 67.2 (2.09)
Any graduate education 15.4 (0.39) 90.4 (0.60) 74.8 (0.93) 46.5 (0.79) 41.4 (0.78) 7.1 (0.37) 93.0 (0.36) 90.2 (0.61) 56.5 (0.80) 48.9 (0.68) 30.9 (0.77) 10.6 (0.35) 72.8 (1.90)
                                                     
Poverty status20                                                    
Below poverty threshold 23.0 (0.80) 78.7 (0.85) 54.6 (1.11) 29.0 (0.81) 24.8 (0.72) 2.1 (0.18) 91.8 (0.32) 88.1 (0.53) 54.1 (0.70) 46.8 (0.60) 28.8 (0.67) 9.6 (0.28) 52.7 (1.73)
At or above poverty threshold 77.0 (0.80) 86.2 (0.37) 66.7 (0.53) 38.9 (0.44) 34.0 (0.42) 4.4 (0.18) 92.8 (0.21) 89.8 (0.35) 55.9 (0.53) 48.4 (0.45) 30.3 (0.51) 10.4 (0.23) 64.2 (1.22)
                                                     
Socioeconomic status21                                                    
Lowest 20 percent 19.1 (0.53) 77.3 (0.89) 51.7 (1.12) 26.5 (0.78) 22.5 (0.67) 1.5 (0.12) 91.7 (0.37) 88.1 (0.60) 53.7 (0.75) 46.5 (0.63) 28.3 (0.66) 9.4 (0.26) 51.5 (1.90)
Middle 60 percent 60.3 (0.73) 84.5 (0.47) 63.8 (0.69) 36.3 (0.56) 31.5 (0.53) 3.5 (0.17) 92.5 (0.24) 89.4 (0.41) 55.4 (0.60) 48.0 (0.52) 30.0 (0.60) 10.2 (0.27) 61.3 (1.49)
Highest 20 percent 20.6 (0.56) 91.1 (0.43) 75.4 (0.80) 46.7 (0.70) 41.5 (0.70) 7.0 (0.38) 93.4 (0.24) 90.9 (0.40) 57.2 (0.64) 49.5 (0.54) 31.5 (0.63) 10.9 (0.29) 71.7 (1.86)
†Not applicable.                                                    
1 Distribution of weighted Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort survey population between 22 and 25 months of age.
2 Based on assessments collected using the Bayley Short Form Research Edition (BSF-R), a shortened field method of administering the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) (Bayley 1993). The scores are fully equated with the BSID-II; for more information, see NCES's Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS–B) Psychometric Report for the 2-year Data Collection. The proficiency probabilities indicate mastery of a specific skill or ability within mental or physical domains.
3 Secure attachment was measured by trained observers using the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 Item (TAS-45) assessment. The formation of secure attachments in early childhood is an indicator that the child is able to use the parent as a secure base from which to explore novel stimuli in the environment freely and acquire a sense of self-confidence and adaptability to new and challenging situations. Other possible attachment classifications were avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized/disorientated.
4 Ability to recognize and understand spoken words or to indicate a named object by pointing.
5 Verbal expressiveness using gestures, words, and sentences.
6 Ability to understand actions depicted by a story, in pictures, or by verbal instructions.
7 Ability to match objects by their properties (e.g., color) or differentiate one object from another.
8 Knowledge of counting words, knowledge of ordinality, and understanding of simple quantities.
9 Ability to walk independently.
10 Ability to maintain balance when changing position.
11 Ability to use fine motor control with hands, such as grasping a pencil or holding a piece of paper while scribbling.
12 Ability to walk up and down stairs, with or without alternating feet.
13 Ability to maintain balance when changing position or when in motion, such as jumping.
14 Ability to anticipate, regulate, and execute motor movements, such as being able to attempt to replicate the motions of others.
15 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
16 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
17 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
18 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools.
19 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
20 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2002, which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2002, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $18,392.
21 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W2R0. Estimates pertain to sample of children born in 2001 and assessed between 22 months and 25 months of age. Children younger than 22 months (less than 1 percent of the survey population) and children older than 25 months (approximately 9 percent of the survey population) are excluded from this table. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse. Standard errors appear in parentheses. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 9-month–Kindergarten 2007 Restricted-Use Data File and Electronic Codebook. (This table was prepared December 2010.)
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