What is Title IX?
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance.
The Title IX regulation describes the conduct that violates Title IX. Examples of the types of discrimination that are covered under Title IX include sexual harassment, the failure to provide equal opportunity in athletics, and discrimination based on pregnancy. To enforce Title IX, the U.S. Department of Education maintains an Office for Civil Rights, with headquarters in Washington, DC and 12 offices across the United States.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Title IX and Sex Discrimination .
Examples of progress toward gender equity in recent decades are listed below:
From 1999–2000 to 2009–10, the percentage of degrees earned by females remained between approximately 60 and 62 percent for associate's degrees and between 57 and 58 percent for bachelor's degrees. In contrast, the percentages of both master's and doctor's degrees earned by females increased from 1999–2000 to 2009–10 (from 58 to 60 percent and from 45 to 52 percent, respectively). Within each racial/ethnic group, women earned the majority of degrees at all levels in 2009–10. For example, among U.S. residents, Black females earned 68 percent of associate's degrees, 66 percent of bachelor's degrees, 71 percent of master's degrees, and 65 percent of all doctor's degrees awarded to Black students. Hispanic females earned 62 percent of associate's degrees, 61 percent of bachelor's degrees, 64 percent of master's degrees, and 55 percent of all doctor's degrees awarded to Hispanic students.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 47.
Participation in Athletics
Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) provide information concerning personnel, revenues, expenses and other comparative variables of men’s and women’s intercollegiate athletics programs at NCAA member institutions for the fiscal years 2004 through 2010. Comparing the 2004 data to the 2010 data reveals increases in the proportion of female student athletes. During this time, there was an approximately 14 percentage point increase in the proportion of female student athletes in Division I, a 21 percentage point increase for women in Division II, and a 14 percentage point increase for women in Division III.
SOURCE: The National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2012). Research — NCAA Gender Equity Report 2004-2010.
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